193 CAPUT V.











Chapter VII.

By the example of Judith is shown that courage is not wanting in widows; her preparation for her visit to Holofernes is dwelt upon, as also her chastity and her wisdom, her sobriety and moderation. Lastly, St. Ambrose, after demonstrating that she was no less brave than prudent, sets forth her modesty after her success.

37. But bravery also is usually not wanting to a good widow. For this is true bravery, which surpasses the usual nature and the weakness of the sex by the devotion of the mind, such as was in her who was named Judith,47    Judith viii. 11 ff. who of herself alone was able to rouse up from utter prostration and defend from the enemy men broken down by the siege, smitten with fear, and pining with hunger. For she, as we read, when Holofernes, dreaded after his success in so many battles, had driven countless thousands of men within the walls; when the armed men were afraid, and were already treating about the final surrender, went forth outside the wall, both excelling that army which she delivered, and braver than that which she put to flight.

38. But in order to learn the dispositions of ripe widowhood, run through the course of the Scriptures. From the time when her husband died she laid aside the garments of mirth, and took those of mourning. Every day she was intent on fasting except on the Sabbath and the Lord’s Day and the times of holy days, not as yielding to desire of refreshment, but out of respect for religion. For this is that which is said: “Whether ye eat or drink, all is to be done in the name of Jesus Christ,”48    1 Cor. x. 31. that even the very refreshment of the body is to have respect to the worship of holy religion. So then, holy Judith,49    Judith x. 3 ff. strengthened by lengthened mourning and by daily fasting, sought not the enjoyments of the world regardless of danger, and strong in her contempt for death. In order to accomplish her stratagem she put on that robe of mirth, wherewith in her husband’s lifetime she was wont to be clothed, as though she would give pleasure to her husband, if she freed her country. But she saw another man whom she was seeking to please, even Him, of Whom it is said: “After me cometh a Man Who is preferred before me.”50    S. John i. 30. And she did well in resuming her bridal ornaments when about to fight, for the reminders of wedlock are the arms of chastity, and in no other way could a widow please or gain the victory.

39. Why relate the sequel? How she amongst thousands of enemies, remained chaste. Why speak of her wisdom, in that she designed such a scheme? She chose out the commander, to ward off from herself the insolence of inferiors, and prepare an opportunity for victory. She reserved the merit of abstinence and the grace of chastity. For unpolluted, as we read, either by food or by adultery, she gained no less a triumph over the enemy by preserving her chastity than by delivering her country.

40. What shall I say of her sobriety? Temperance, indeed, is the virtue of women. When the men were intoxicated with wine and buried in sleep, the widow took the sword, put forth her hand, cut off the warrior’s head, and passed unharmed through the midst of the ranks of the enemy. You notice, then, how much drunkenness can injure a woman, seeing that wine so weakens men that they are overcome by women. Let a widow, then, be temperate, pure in the first place from wine, that she may be pure from adultery. He will tempt you in vain, if wine tempts you not. For if Judith had drunk she would have slept with the adulterer. But because she drank not, the sobriety of one without difficulty was able both to overcome and to escape from a drunken army.

41. And this was not so much a work of her hands, as much more a trophy of her wisdom. For having overcome Holofernes by her hand alone, she overcame the whole army of the enemies by her wisdom. For hanging up the head of Holofernes, a deed which the wisdom of the men had been unable to plan, she raised the courage of her countrymen, and broke down that of the enemy. She stirred up her own friends by her modesty, and struck terror into the enemy so that they were put to flight and slain. And so the temperance and sobriety of one widow not only subdued her own nature, but, which is far more, even made men more brave.

42. And yet she was not so elated by this success, though she might well rejoice and exult by right of her victory, as to give up the exercises of her widowhood, but refusing all who desired to wed her she laid aside her garments of mirth and took again those of her widowhood, not caring for the adornments of her triumph, thinking those things better whereby vices of the body are subdued than those whereby the weapons of an enemy are overcome.


Fortitudinem viduis non deesse in Judith ostenditur: 0245D cujus veste ac jejuniis commemoratis, describitur ejusdem in Holophernem praeparatio. Quanta fuerit ejus castitas, atque in commentanda pia fraude sapientia: quanta etiam temperantia et sobrietas. Ad extremum demonstrato non majorem in ipsa fortitudinis 0246A quam prudentiae laudem emicare, summa ejus in tanto successu modestia declaratur.

37. Sed nec fortitudo bonae viduae deesse consuevit. Haec enim vera est fortitudo, 196 quae naturae usum, sexus infirmitatem, mentis devotione transgreditur: qualis in illa fuit, cui nomen Judith, quae viros obsidione fractos, perculsos metu, tabidos fame, sola potuit a colluvione revocare, ab hoste defendere. Ea enim, ut legimus, cum Holophernes successu multorum terribilis praeliorum, intra muros innumera virorum millia coegisset, armatis paventibus, et de extrema jam sorte tractantibus, extra murum processit: et illo praestantior exercitu, quem liberavit; et eo fortior, quem fugavit (Judith VIII, 6 et seq.).

38. Sed ut discas maturae viduitatis affectum, seriem 0246B ipsam persequere Scripturarum. A diebus enim viri sui quibus ille defunctus est, vestem jucunditatis deposuit, moeroris assumpsit: per omnes dies intenta jejunio, sabbato tantum, et dominica sacratarumque temporibus feriarum, non refectioni indulgens, sed religioni deferens. Hoc est enim, sive manducatis, sive bibitis, in nomine Jesu Christi agenda esse omnia (I Cor. X, 31); ut etiam ipsa refectio corporalis sacrae religionis cultui deferatur. Diuturnis igitur moeroribus, et quotidianis roborata jejuniis sancta Judith (Judith X, 3 et seq.) quae saeculi oblectamenta non quaerit, periculi negligens, mortisque contemptu fortior; ut commenta strueret doli, vestem illam jucunditatis, qua, vivente viro, vestiri solebat, se induit: quasi placitura viro, si patriam liberaret. 0246C Sed virum alium videbat, cui placere quaerebat; illum utique, de quo dictum est: Post me venit vir, qui ante me factus est (Joan. I, 30). Et bene conjugales pugnatura resumpsit ornatus; quia monimenta conjugii arma sunt castitatis: neque enim vidua alias aut placere posset, aut vincere.

39. Quid caetera persequamur, quod inter millia hostium casta permansit? Quid ejus sapientiam praedicemus, quod hujuscemodi est commentata consilium? Potentem elegit, ut intemperantiam a se inferioris arceret, occasionem pararet victoriae. Abstinentiae meritum, pudicitiae gratiam reservavit. Nec cibo enim, ut legimus, maculata, nec adulterio, non minorem servatae castitatis ex hostibus revexit triumphum, quam patriae liberatae (Judith XII, 1 et 0246D seq.)

40. Quid sobrietatem loquar? Temperantia enim virtus est feminarum. Inebriatis vino viris et somno sepultis abstulit vidua gladium, exeruit manum, bellatoris abscidit caput, per medias hostium acies 0247A intemerata processit (Judith XIII, 4 et seq.) Advertitis igitur quantum nocere mulieribus possit ebrietas, quando viros vina sic solvunt, ut vincantur a feminis? Esto igitur, vidua, temperans: casta primum a vino, ut possis casta esse ab adulterio. Nequaquam te ille tentabit, si vina non tentent. Nam si Judith bibisset, dormisset cum adultero. Sed quia non bibit; haud difficile ebrios exercitus, unius sobrietas et vincere potuit, et eludere.

41. Nec dexterae tantum hoc opus, sed multo major trophaea sapientiae. Nam cum manu 197 solum Holophernem vicisset, consilio omnem hostium vicit exercitum (Judith XIV, 1 et seq.). Suspenso enim Holophernis capite, quod virorum non potuit excogitari consilio, suorum erexit animos, hostium fregit: 0247B suos pudore excitans, hostes quoque terrore percellens; eoque caesi sunt et fugati. Ita unius viduae temperantia atque sobrietas non solum naturam suam vicit, sed quod est amplius, fecit viros etiam fortiores (Judith XV, 1 et seq.).

42. Nec his tamen elata successibus, cui utique gaudere et exsultare licebat jure victoriae, viduitatis reliquit officium: sed contemptis omnibus qui ejus nuptias ambiebant, vestem jucunditatis deposuit, viduitatis resumpsit: nec triumphorum suorum amavit ornatus, illos existimans esse meliores quibus vitia corporis, quam quibus hostium arma vincuntur (Judith XVI, 26 et seq.).