193 CAPUT V.











Chapter VIII.

Though many other widows came near to Judith in virtue, St. Ambrose proposes to speak of Deborah only. What a pattern of virtue she must have been for widows, who was chosen to govern and defend men. It was no small glory to her that when her son was over the host he refused to go forth to battle unless she would go also. So that she led the army and foretold the result. In this story the conflicts and triumphs of the Church, and her spiritual weapons, are set forth, and every excuse of weakness is taken from women.

43. And in order that it may not seem as if only one widow had fulfilled this inimitable work, it seems in no way doubtful that there were many others of equal or almost equal virtue, for good seed corn usually bears many ears filled with grains. Doubt not, then, that that ancient seed-time was fruitful in the characters of many women. But as it would be tedious to include all, consider some, and especially Deborah,51    Jud. iv. 4 ff. whose virtue Scripture records for us.

44. For she showed not only that widows have no need of the help of a man, inasmuch as she, not at all restrained by the weakness of her sex, undertook to perform the duties of a man, and did even more than she had undertaken. And, at last, when the Jews were being ruled under the leadership of the judges, because they could not govern them with manly justice, or defend them with manly strength, and so wars broke out on all sides, they chose Deborah,52    St. Jerome agrees with St. Ambrose in believing that Deborah literally was a judge, as indeed seems conclusive from the Scriptural account, but doubts whether she was a widow and mother of Barak, and is probably right in the latter case. Whether Lapidoth, however, was still alive is not so clear. St. Jerome, Ep. ad Furiam, § 17. by whose judgment they might be ruled. And so one widow both ruled many thousands of men in peace, and defended them from the enemy. There were many judges in Israel, but no woman before was a judge, as after Joshua there were many judges but none was a prophet. And I think that her judgeship has been narrated, and her deeds described, that women should not be restrained from deeds of valour by the weakness of their sex. A widow, she governs the people; a widow, she leads armies; a widow, she chooses generals; a widow, she determines wars and orders triumphs. So, then, it is not nature which is answerable for the fault or which is liable to weakness. It is not sex, but valour which makes strong.

45. And in time of peace there is no complaint, and no fault is found in this woman whereas most of the judges were causes of no small sins to the people. But when the Canaanites, a people fierce in battle and rich in troops, successively joined them, showed a horrible disposition against the people of the Jews, this widow, before all others, made all the preparations for war. And to show that the needs of the household were not dependent on the public resources, but rather that public duties were guided by the discipline of home life, she brings forth from her home her son as leader of the army, that we may acknowledge that a widow can train a warrior; whom, as a mother, she taught, and, as judge, placed in command, as, being herself brave, she trained him, and, as a prophetess, sent to certain victory.

46. And lastly, her son Barak shows the chief part of the victory was in the hands of a woman when he said: “If thou wilt not go with me I will not go, for I know not the day on which the Lord sendeth His angel with me.”53    Jud. iv. 8 [LXX.]. How great, then, was the might of that woman to whom the leader of the army says, “If thou wilt not go I will not go.” How great, I say, the fortitude of the widow who keeps not back her son from dangers through motherly affection, but rather with the zeal of a mother exhorts her son to go forth to victory, while saying that the decisive point of that victory is in the hand of a woman!

47. So, then, Deborah foretold the event of the battle. Barak, as he was bidden, led forth the army; Jael carried off the triumph, for the prophecy of Deborah fought for her, who in a mystery revealed to us the rising of the Church from among the Gentiles, for whom should be found a triumph over Sisera, that is, over the powers opposed to her. For us, then, the oracles of the prophets fought, for us those judgments and arms of the prophets won the victory. And for this reason it was not the people of the Jews but Jael who gained the victory over the enemy. Unhappy, then, was that people which could not follow up by the virtue of faith the enemy, whom it had put to flight. And so by their fault salvation came to the Gentiles, by their sluggishness the victory was reserved for us.

48. Jael then destroyed Sisera, whom however the band of Jewish veterans had put to flight under their brilliant54    The word Barak signifies lightning. It is probably the same as the Punic Barca, the surname of Hamilcar, father of Hannibal, or possibly was a family name. leader, for this is the interpretation of the name Barak; for often, as we read, the sayings and merits of the prophets procured heavenly aid for the fathers. But even at that time was victory being prepared over spiritual wickedness for those to whom it is said in the Gospel: “Come, ye blessed of My Father, take possession of the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.”55    S. Matt. xxv. 34. So the commencement of the victory was from the Fathers, its conclusion is in the Church.

49. But the Church does not overcome the powers of the enemy with weapons of this world, but with spiritual arms, “which are mighty through God to the destruction of strongholds and the high places of spiritual wickedness.”56    2 Cor. x. 4. And Sisera’s thirst was quenched with a bowl of milk, because he was overcome by wisdom, for what is healthful for us as food is deadly and weakening to the power of the enemy. The weapons of the Church are faith, the weapons of the Church are prayer, which overcomes the enemy.

50. And so according to this history a woman, that the minds of women might be stirred up, became a judge, a woman set all in order, a woman prophesied, a woman triumphed, and joining in the battle array taught men to war under a woman’s lead. But in a mystery it is the battle of faith and the victory of the Church.

51. You, then, who are women have no excuse because of your nature. You who are widows have no excuse because of the weakness of your sex, nor can you attribute your changeableness to the loss of the support of a husband. Every one has sufficient protection if courage is not wanting to the soul. And the very advance of age is a common defence of chastity for widows; and grief for the husband who is lost, regular work, the care of the house, anxiety for children, frequently ward off wantonness hurtful to the soul; while the very mourning attire, the funeral solemnities, the constant weeping, and grief impressed on the sad brow in deep wrinkles, restrains wanton eyes, checks lust, turns away forward looks. The sorrow of regretful affection is a good guardian of chastity, guilt cannot find an entrance if vigilance be not wanting.


Plures alias viduas quae virtute ad Judith accesserint, 0247C exstitisse ait vir sanctus, at de sola Debbora nunc se dicturum. Quanta documenta viduis ea reliquerit, quam viri a qua regerentur defenderenturque, elegerunt. Maximam quoque illius gloriam inde profectam, quod filium a se informatum bello praefecerit, hic autem copias, nisi adesset illa, negaverit sese ducturum. Eam igitur et exercitui praefuisse et praenuntiasse belli exitum; in qua Ecclesiae pugnae ac triumphi, nec non spiritalia arma designata sunt: historice vero feminis omnes auferuntur infirmitatis excusationes.

43. Ac ne una vidua tantum hoc opus inimitabile 0248A aliis videatur implesse, plures alias, vel parilis, vel proximae fuisse virtutis nequaquam dubitandum videtur; bona enim seges plurimas spicas fructu refertas ferre consuevit. Nec dubites illam, veterum segetem temporum in complurium feminarum moribus fecundasse. Sed quia prolixum est complecti omnes, cognoscite aliquas, et praecipue Debboram, cujus nobis prodidit Scriptura virtutem (Judic. IV, 4).

44. Haec enim docuit non solum viri auxilio viduas non egere, verumetiam viris esse subsidio: quae nec sexus infirmitate revocata, munia virorum obeunda suscepit, et suscepta cumulavit. Denique cum Judaei Judicum regerentur arbitrio, quia virili non poterant vel aequitate regi, vel virtute defendi, 0248B bellis hinc inde ardentibus, Debboram sibi cujus regerentur judicio, cooptarunt. Itaque multa millia 198 virorum una vidua et in pace rexit, et ab hoste defendit. Multi Judices in Israel, sed nulla ante judex femina: multi Judices post Jesum, sed nullus propheta. Et ideo lectum istius puto esse judicium, et gesta ejus arbitror esse descripta; ne mulieres a virtutis officio, muliebris sexus infirmitate revocentur. Vidua populos regit, vidua ducit exercitus, vidua duces eligit, vidua bella disponit, mandat triumphos. Non ergo natura rea est culpae, nec infirmitati obnoxia: strenuos non sexus, sed virtus facit.

45. Et in pace quidem nulla querimonia, nullus error mulieris invenitur: cum plerique non mediocrium peccatorum auctores populo suo Judices exstitissent. 0248C Ubi vero Chananaei, gens ferox praelio, et affluentium copiarum opima successu, hostiles in populum Judaeorum animos extulerunt, vidua prae caeteris bellicos instruit apparatus. Et ut discas non publicis copiis domesticas necessitates fuisse subnixas, sed domesticis disciplinis munus publicum gubernatum, domo propria filium ducem producit exercitus, ut agnoscatis quod possit instituere vidua bellatorem: quem quasi mater erudiit, quasi Judex praeposuit, quasi fortis instituit, quasi prophetissa victoriae certae transmisit (Ibid., 6).

46. Denique in mulieris manu summam fuisse 0249A victoriae docet Barach filius dicens: Nisi tu veneris mecum, non ibo; quia non novi diem in qua dirigit Dominus angelum suum mecum (Judic., IV, 9). Quanta ergo feminae istius virtus, cui dux dicit exercitus: nisi tu veneris, non ibo? Quanta, inquam, viduae fortitudo, quae a periculis filium nec materno revocat affectu; immo ad victoriam filium studio matris hortatur, dicens quod in manu mulieris sit summa victoriae?

47. Debbora ergo praelii prophetavit eventum, Barach jussus produxit exercitum: Jael cepit triumphum; huic enim prophetiae in Debbora militavit, quae mystice nobis ortum surrecturae ex gentibus Ecclesiae revelavit, cui triumphus de Sisara spiritali, hoc est, de adversariis potestatibus quaereretur. Nobis 0249B igitur prophetarum oracula dimicarunt, nobis illa prophetarum judicia et arma vicerunt. Et ideo non populus Judaeorum, sed etiam Jael victoriam de hoste quaesivit. Infelix ergo populus, qui hostem quem fugavit, persequi fidei virtute non potuit. Itaque illorum delicto salus gentibus: illorum desidia nobis servata victoria est.

48. Jael ergo prostravit Sisaram, quem tamen corusco duce, hoc enim significat interpretatio Barach, manus veterum fugaverat Judaeorum; 199 frequenter enim, ut legimus, orationibus et meritis prophetarum coelestia Patribus affuere subsidia. Sed his jam tunc de nequitiis spiritalibus victoria parabatur, quibus dicitur in Evangelio: Venite, benedicti Patris mei, possidete paratum vobis regnum a constitutione 0249C mundi (Matth. XXV, 34). Ergo principium victoriae a majoribus, finis in Ecclesia.

49. Ecclesia autem non armis saecularibus vincit adversarias potestates, sed armis spiritalibus, quae sunt fortia Deo ad destruendas munitiones, et altitudinem nequitiae spiritalis (II Cor. X, 5). Et ideo Sisarae sitis lactis poculo restinguitur (Judic. IV, 19), quia ratione superatur; quod enim nobis salutare ad escam, hoc adversariae potestati lethale ad infirmitatem. Arma Ecclesiae fides, arma Ecclesiae oratio est, quae adversarium vincit.

50. Ergo secundum historiam ad provocandos animos feminarum femina judicavit, femina disposuit, femina prophetavit, femina triumphavit, et praeliaribus intermixta copiis, imperio viros docuit 0249D militare femineo. Secundum mysterium vero fidei militia Ecclesiae victoria est.

51. Non ergo habetis quod per naturam vos excusetis, feminae. Non habetis, viduae, quod ad infirmitatem sexus, autad amissi onem subsidii maritalis, 0250A mobilitatem vestram referre possitis. Satis unicuique praesidii est, si virtus non desit animae. Et ipse in viduis frequens processus aetatis munimen pudoris est; et ipse amissi conjugis dolor, usus operis, domus cura, sollicitudo liberorum, noxiam pudori solet arcere lasciviam: atque ipse lugubris habitus, pompa funebris, fletus assiduus, et moestae fronti inarantibus rugis impressa tristitia, petulantium premit oculos, restinguit libidines, procaces avertit aspectus. Bonus custos pudoris, pietatis dolor: non obrepit culpa, si cura non desit.