ΤΟΥ ΕΝ ΑΓΙΟΙΣ ΠΑΤΡΟΣ ΗΜΩΝ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ ΑΡΧΙΕΠΙΣΚΟΠΟΥ ΚΩΝΣΤΑΝΤΙΝΟΥΠΟΛΕΩΣ, ΤΟΥ ΧΡΥΣΟΣΤΟΜΟΥ, ΥΠΟΜΝΗΜΑ ΕΙΣ ΤΗΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΙΤΟΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΟΛΗΝ. ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Αʹ. Παῦλος δοῦλος Θ
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Βʹ. Τούτου χάριν κατέλιπόν σε ἐν Κρήτῃ, ἵνα τὰ λείποντα ἐπιδιορθώσῃ, καὶ καταστήσῃς κατὰ πόλιν πρεσβυτέρους, ὡς ἐγώ σοι διεταξάμην: εἴ τίς ἐστι
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Γʹ. Εἶπέ τις ἐξ αὐτῶν ἴδιος αὐτῶν προφήτης: Κρῆ τες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται, κακὰ θηρία, γαστέρες ἀργαί. Ἡ μαρτυρία αὕτη ἐστὶν ἀληθής. Δι' ἣν αἰτίαν ἔλεγχε
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Δʹ. Πρεσβύτας νηφαλίους εἶναι, σεμνοὺς, σώφρο νας, ὑγιαίνοντας τῇ πίστει, τῇ ἀγάπῃ, τῇ ὑπομονῇ: πρεσβύτιδας ὡσαύτως ἐν καταστή ματι ἱεροπρεπεῖς
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Εʹ. Ἐπεφάνη γὰρ ἡ χάρις τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡ σωτήριος πᾶ σιν ἀνθρώποις, παιδεύουσα ἡμᾶς, ἵνα ἀρνησά μενοι τὴν ἀσέβειαν καὶ τὰς κοσμικὰς ἐπιθυμίας, σωφρόν
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Ϛʹ. Καὶ περὶ τούτων βούλομαί σε διαβεβαιοῦσθαι, ἵνα φροντίζωσι καλῶν ἔργων προΐστασθαι οἱ πεπιστευκότες τῷ Θεῷ. Ταῦτά ἐστι καλὰ καὶ ὠφέλιμα τοῖ
Titus i. 5, 6
“For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are wanting, and ordain elders in every city as I had appointed thee: If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children, not accused of riot, or unruly.”
The whole life of men in ancient times was one of action and contention; ours on the contrary is a life of indolence. They knew that they were brought into the world for this purpose, that they might labor according to the will of Him who brought them into it; but we, as if we had been placed here but to eat and drink, and lead a life of pleasure, we pay no regard to spiritual things. I speak not only of the Apostles, but of those that followed them. You see them accordingly traversing all places, and pursuing this as their only business, living altogether as in a foreign land, as those who had no city upon earth. Hear therefore what the blessed Apostle saith,
“For this cause left I thee in Crete.”
As if the whole world had been one house, they divided it among themselves, administering its affairs everywhere, each taking care of his several portion of it.
“For this cause left I thee in Crete, that thou shouldest set in order the things that are [R.V. were] wanting.”
He does not command this in an imperious manner; “that thou shouldest set in order,” he says. Here we see a soul free from all envy, seeking everywhere the advantage of his disciples, not curiously solicitous, whether the good was done by himself or by another. For where there was a case of danger and great difficulty, he in his own person set it in order. But those things which were rather attended with honor and praise he committed to his disciple, as the ordination of Bishops, and such other things as required some farther arrangement,11 ἐπιδιορθώσεως. or, so to speak, to be brought to greater perfection. What sayest thou? does he farther set in order thy work? and dost thou not think it a disgrace bringing shame upon thee? By no means; for I look only to the common good, and whether it be done by me, or by another, it makes no difference to me. Thus it becomes him to be affected who presides in the Church, not to seek his own honor, but the common good.
“And ordain elders in every city,” here he is speaking of Bishops, as we have before said,12 See on 1 Tim. iii. 7, Hom. x. “as I had appointed thee. If any is blameless.” “In every city,” he says, for he did not wish the whole island to be intrusted to one, but that each should have his own charge and care, for thus he would have less labor himself, and those under his rule would receive greater attention, if the Teacher had not to go about to13 Sav. mar. “were not to be distracted by.” the presidency of many Churches, but was left to be occupied with one only, and to bring that into order.
Ver. 6. “If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children, not accused of riot, or unruly.”
Why does he bring forward such an one? To stop the mouths of those heretics, who condemned marriage, showing that it is not an unholy thing in itself, but so far honorable, that a married man might ascend the holy throne; and at the same reproving the wanton, and not permitting their admission into this high office who contracted a second marriage. For he who retains no kind regard for her who is departed, how shall he be a good president? and what accusation would he not incur? For you all know, that though it is not forbidden by the laws to enter into a second marriage, yet it is a thing liable to many ill constructions. Wishing therefore a ruler to give no handle for reproach to those under his rule, he on this account says, “If any be blameless,”14 ἀνέγκλητος. that is, if his life be free from reproach, if he has given occasion to no one to assail his character. Hear what Christ says, “If the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!” (Matt. vi. 23.)
“Having faithful children, not accused of riot, or unruly.”
We should observe what care he bestows upon children. For he who cannot be the instructor of his own children, how should he be the Teacher of others? If he cannot keep in order those whom he has had with him from the beginning, whom he has brought up, and over whom he had power both by the laws, and by nature, how will he be able to benefit those without? For if the incompetency15 ναθέια. of the father had not been great, he would not have allowed those to become bad whom from the first he had under his power. For it is not possible, indeed it is not, that one should turn out ill who is brought up with much care, and has received great attention. Sins are not so prevalent by nature, as to overcome so much previous care. But if, occupied in the pursuit of wealth, he has made his children a secondary concern, and not bestowed much care upon them, even so he is unworthy. For if when nature prompted, he was so void of affection or so senseless, that he thought more of his wealth than of his children, how should he be raised to the Episcopal throne, and so great rule? For if he was unable to restrain them it is a great proof of his weakness; and if he was unconcerned, his want of affection is much to be blamed. He then that neglects his own children, how shall he take care of other men’s? And he has not only said, “not riotous,” but not even “accused of riot.” There must not be an ill report, or such an opinion of them.
Ver. 7. “For a Bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not self-willed, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker.”
For a ruler without, as he rules by law and compulsion, perhaps does not consult the wishes of those under his rule. But he who ought to rule men with their own consent, and who will be thankful for his rule, if he so conduct himself as to do everything of his own will, and share counsels with no one, makes his presidency tyrannical rather than popular. For he must be “blameless, as the steward of God, not self-willed, not soon angry.” For how shall he instruct others to rule that passion, who has not taught himself? For power leads on to many temptations, it makes a man more harsh and difficult to please, even him that was very mild, surrounding him with so many occasions of anger. If he have not previously practiced himself in this virtue, he will grow harsh, and will injure and destroy much that is under his rule.
“Not given to wine,16 πάροινον, see p. 438, note. no striker.” Here he is speaking of the insolent man. For he should do all things by admonition or rebuke, and not by insolence. What necessity, tell me, for insult? He ought to terrify, to alarm, to penetrate the soul with the threat of hell. But he that is insulted becomes more impudent, and rather despises him that insults him. Nothing produces contempt more than insult; it disgraces the insolent person, and prevents his being respected, as he ought to be. Their discourse ought to be delivered with much caution. In reproving sins they should bear in mind the future judgment, but keep clear of all insolence. Yet if any prevent them from doing their duty, they must prosecute the matter with all authority. “Not a striker,” he says. The teacher is the physician of souls. But the physician does not strike, but heals and restores him that has stricken him. “Not given to filthy lucre.”
Ver. 8. “But a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just, holy, temperate.”
Ver. 9. “Holding fast the faithful word as he has been taught.”
You see what intensity of virtue he required. “Not given to filthy lucre,” that is, showing great contempt for money. “A lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just, holy”; he means, giving away all his substance to them that need. “Temperate”; he speaks not here of one who fasts, but of one who commands his passions, his tongue, his hands, his eyes. For this is temperance, to be drawn aside by no passion.
“Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught.” By “faithful” is here meant “true,” or that which was delivered through faith, not requiring reasonings, or questionings.
“Holding fast,” that is, having care of it, making it his business. What then, if he be ignorant of the learning that is without? For this cause, he says, “the faithful word, according to teaching.”17 The Greek does not exclude the sense of teaching others.
“That he may be able both to exhort, and to convince the gainsayers.”
So that there is need not of pomp of words, but of strong minds, of skill in the Scriptures and of powerful thoughts. Do you not see that Paul put to flight the whole world, that he was more powerful than Plato and all the rest? But it was by miracles, you say. Not by miracles only, for if you peruse the Acts of the Apostles, you will find him often prevailing by his teaching previously to his miracles.
“That he may be able by sound doctrine to exhort,” that is, to retain his own people, and to overthrow the adversaries. “And to convince the gainsayers.” For if this is not done, all is lost. He who knows not how to combat the adversaries, and to “bring every thought into captivity to the obedience of Christ,” and to beat down reasonings, he who knows not what he ought to teach with regard to right doctrine, far from him be the Teacher’s throne. For the other qualities may be found in those under his rule, such as to be “blameless, to have his children in subjection, to be hospitable, just, holy.” But that which characterizes the Teacher is this, to be able to instruct in the word, to which no regard is now paid.
Ver. 10. “For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, especially they of the circumcision;”
Ver. 11. “Whose mouths must be stopped.”
Seest thou how he shows that they are such? From their not wishing to be ruled, but to rule. For he has glanced at this. When therefore thou canst not persuade them, do not give them charges, but stop their mouths, for the benefit of others. But of what advantage will this be, if they will not obey, or are unruly? Why then should he stop their mouths? In order that others may be benefited by it.
“Who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not for filthy lucre’s sake.”
For if he has undertaken the office of a Teacher, and is not able to combat these enemies, and to stop their mouths who are so shameless, he will become in each case the cause of their destination who perish. And if some one has thus advised, “Seek not to be a judge, unless thou canst take away iniquity” (Ecclus. vii. 6.); much more may we say here, “Seek not to be a Teacher, if thou art unequal to the dignity of the office; but though dragged to it, decline it.” Dost thou see that the love of power,18 So B. and Sav. mar. Edd. “avarice.” the love of filthy lucre, is the cause of these evils? “Teaching things which they ought not,” he says, “for filthy lucre’s sake.”
Moral. For there is nothing which is not spoiled by these passions. But as when violent winds, falling on a calm sea, turn it up from its foundation, and mingle the sand with the waves, so these passions assailing the soul turn all upside down, and dim the clearness of the mental sight, but especially does the mad desire of glory. For a contempt for money any one may easily attain, but to despise the honor that proceeds from the multitude, requires a great effort, a philosophic temper, a certain angelic soul that reaches to the very summit of heaven. For there is no passion so tyrannical, so universally prevalent, in a greater or less degree indeed, but still everywhere. How then shall we subdue it, if not wholly, yet in some little part? By looking up to heaven, by setting God before our eyes, by entertaining thoughts superior to earthly things. Imagine, when thou desirest glory, that thou hast already attained it, and mark the end, and thou wilt find it to be nothing. Consider with what loss it is attended, of how many and how great blessings it will deprive thee. For thou wilt undergo the toils and danger, yet be deprived of the fruits and rewards of them. Consider that the majority are bad, and despise their opinion. In the case of each individual, consider what the man is, and thou wilt see how ridiculous a thing is glory, that it is rather to be called shame.
And after this, lift up thy thoughts to the theater19 i.e. spectators. above. When in doing any good thou considerest that it ought to be displayed to men, and thou seekest for some spectators of the action, and art in travail to be seen, reflect that God beholds thee, and all that desire will be extinguished. Retire from the earth, and look to that theater that is in Heaven. If men should praise thee, yet hereafter they will blame thee, will envy thee, will assail thy character; or if they do not, yet their praise will not benefit thee. It is not so with God. He delights in praising our virtuous deeds. Hast thou spoken well, and obtained applause? What hast thou gained? For if those who applauded thee were benefited, changed in their minds, become better men, and had desisted from their evil deeds, then mightest thou indeed rejoice, not at the praises bestowed, but at the wonderful change for the better. But if they continue their praises, and loud plaudits, but gain no good by what they applaud, thou oughtest rather to grieve: for these things turn to their judgment and condemnation.20 B. and Sav. mar. add, “and condemnation.” But thou obtainest glory for thy piety. If thou art truly pious, and conscious of no guilt, thou shouldest rejoice, not because thou are reputed pious, but because thou art so. But if, without being so, thou desirest the good opinion of the multitude, consider that they will not be thy judges at the last day, but He who knoweth perfectly the things that are hid. And if while conscious of guilt, thou art supposed by all to be pure, instead of rejoicing, thou shouldest grieve and mourn bitterly, keeping constantly in view that Day, in which all things will be revealed, in which the hidden things of darkness will be brought to light.
Dost thou enjoy honor? reject it, knowing that it renders thee a debtor. Does no one honor thee? thou oughtest to rejoice at it. For God will not lay21 One ms. “will lay.” The sense is the same, as it refers to the contrary case. to thy charge this, among other things, that thou hast enjoyed honor. Seest thou not that God upbraids Israel with this among other things, by his prophet, “I took of your sons for Prophets, and of your young men for sanctification”? (Amos ii. 11, Sept.) Thou wilt therefore gain this advantage at least, that thou wilt not aggravate thy punishment. For he who is not honored in the present life, who is despised, and held in no consideration, but is insulted and scorned, gains this at least, if nothing else, that he has not to answer for being honored by his fellow-servants.22 In this spirit Coleridge prays “to be forgiven for fame.” And on many other accounts he gains23 B. “will gain.” Ben. “has cause to rejoice.” by it. He is brought down and humbled, nor if he would, can he be high-minded, if24 B. and Sav. mar. “but.” he takes the more heed to himself. But he, who enjoys more honor, besides being responsible for great debts, is lifted up into arrogance and vainglory, and becomes the slave of men; and as this tyranny increases, he is compelled to do many things which he would not.
Knowing therefore that it is better to want glory, than to possess it, let us not seek for honors, but evade them when they are offered, let us cast them from us, let us extinguish that desire. This we have said at once to the rulers of the church, and to those under their rule. For a soul desirous of honor, and of being glorified, shall not see the kingdom of heaven. This is not my own saying. I speak not my own words, but those of the Spirit of God. He shall not see it, though he practice virtue. For he saith, “They have their reward.” (Matt. vi. 5.) He then, who has no reward to receive, how shall he see the kingdom of heaven? I forbid thee not to desire glory, but I would wish it to be the true glory, that which proceeds from God. “Whose praise,” it is said, “is not of men, but of God.” (Rom. ii. 29.) Let us be pious in secret, not cumbered with parade, and show, and hypocrisy. Let us cast away the sheep’s clothing, and rather let us become sheep. Nothing is more worthless than the glory of men. Should thou see a company of little children, mere sucklings, wouldest thou desire glory from them?25 Sav. mar. “No, thou sayest.” Be thus affected towards all men with respect to glory.
It is for this reason called vainglory. Dost thou see the masks worn by stage-players? how beautiful and splendid they are, fashioned to the extreme height of elegance. Canst thou show me any such real countenance? By no means. What then? didst thou ever fall in love with them? No. Wherefore? Because they are empty, imitating beauty, but not being really beautiful. Thus human glory is empty, and an imitation of glory: it is not true glory. That beauty only which is natural, which is within, is lasting: that which is put on externally often conceals deformity, conceals it from men until the evening. But when the theater breaks up, and the masks are taken off, each appears what he really is.
Let us therefore pursue truth, and not be as if we were on the stage and acting a part. For of what advantage is it, tell me, to be gazed at by a multitude? It is vainglory, and nothing else. For return to thy house, and solitude, and immediately all is gone. Thou hast gone to the market-place, thou hast turned upon thee the eyes of all present. What hast thou gained? Nothing. It vanished, and passed away like dissolving smoke. Do we then love things thus unsubstantial? How unreasonable is this! what madness! To one thing only let us look, to the never seek the praise of men; but if it falls to us, we shall despise, deride, and reject it. We shall be affected as those who desire gold, but receive clay. Let not any one praise thee, for it profits nothing; and if he blame thee, it harms thee not. But with God praise and blame are attended with real gain and loss, whilst all is vain that proceeds from men. And herein we are made like unto God, that He needs not glory from men. “I receive not,” said Christ, “honor from men.” (John v. 41.) Is this then a light thing, tell me? When thou art unwilling to despise glory, say, “By despising it, I shall resemble God,” and immediately thou wilt despise it. But it is impossible that the slave of glory should not be a slave to all, more servile than slaves in reality. For we do not impose upon our slaves such tasks, as glory exacts from her captives. Base and shameful are the things she makes them say, and do,26 So Old Lat. and as it seems two mss., but the reading of the mss. is not fully stated. and suffer, and when she sees them obedient, she is the more urgent in her commands.
Let us fly then, I entreat you, let us fly from this slavery. But how shall we be able? If we think seriously27 φιλοσοφήσωμεν. of what is in this world, if we observe that things present are a dream, a shadow, and nothing better; we shall easily overcome this desire, and neither in little nor in great things shall be led captive by it. But if in little things we do not despise it, we shall easily be overcome by it in the most important. Let us therefore remove far from us the sources of it, and these are, folly, and meanness of mind, so that, if we assume a lofty spirit, we shall be able to look beyond honor from the multitude, and to extend our views to heaven, and obtain the good things there. Of which God grant that we may all be partakers, by the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with whom, &c.
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Βʹ. Τούτου χάριν κατέλιπόν σε ἐν Κρήτῃ, ἵνα τὰ λείποντα ἐπιδιορθώσῃ, καὶ καταστήσῃς κατὰ πόλιν πρεσβυτέρους, ὡς ἐγώ σοι διεταξάμην: εἴ τίς ἐστιν ἀνέγκλητος, μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἀνὴρ, τέκνα ἔχων πιστὰ, μὴ ἐν κατηγορίᾳ ἀσωτίας, ἢ ἀνυπότακτα. αʹ. Τοῖς μὲν παλαιοῖς ἀνδράσιν ἅπας ὁ βίος ἦν ἐνεργὸς καὶ ἐναγώνιος: ἡμῖν δὲ οὐχ οὕτως, ἀλλὰ ῥᾳθυμίας μεστός. Ἐκεῖνοι μὲν γὰρ ᾔδεσαν ὅτι διὰ τοῦτο εἰς τὸν κόσμον παρήχθησαν, ἵνα τῷ παραγαγόντι κατὰ γνώμην ἐργάζωνται: ἡμεῖς δὲ ὡς διὰ τοῦτο παραχθέντες, ἵνα ἐσθίωμεν καὶ πίνωμεν καὶ τρυφῶμεν, οὕτως οὐδενὸς τῶν πνευματικῶν λόγον ποιούμεθα. Οὐ περὶ τῶν ἀποστόλων λέγω μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν μετ' αὐτούς. Ὁρᾷς γοῦν αὐτοὺς πάντα διατρέχοντας, καὶ ὥσπερ τινὸς ἔργου τούτου ἐπειλημμένους, καὶ διόλου ἐν ξένῃ διατρίβοντας, ἅτε οὐκ ἔχοντας πόλιν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. Ἄκουσον γοῦν τοῦ μακαρίου τούτου τί φησι: Τούτου χάριν κατέλιπόν σε ἐν Κρήτῃ. Καθάπερ οἰκίαν μίαν τὴν οἰκουμένην διανειμάμενοι, οὕτως ἅπαντα διηκονοῦντο, καὶ τῶν ἀπανταχοῦ ἐπεμέλοντο, ὁ μὲν τοῦτο, ὁ δὲ ἐκεῖνο λαβὼν τὸ μέρος. Τούτου γὰρ χάριν, φησὶ, κατέλιπόν σε ἐν τῇ Κρήτῃ, ἵνα τὰ λείποντα ἐπιδιορθώσῃ. Οὐκ ἐπιτακτικῶς αὐτῷ παραινεῖ τέως: Ἵνα ἐπιδιορθώσῃ, φησίν. Ὁρᾷς ψυχὴν φθόνου παντὸς καθαρὰν, πανταχοῦ τὸ τῶν μαθητευομένων χρήσιμον ζητοῦσαν, οὐκ ἀκριβολογουμένην, εἴτε δι' αὐτοῦ, εἴτε δι' ἑτέρου γένοιτο; Ἔνθα μὲν γὰρ ἦν κίνδυνος καὶ πολλὴ δυσκολία, αὐτὸς κατώρθου παρών: ἃ δὲ τιμὴν μᾶλλον ἔφερεν ἢ ἔπαινον εἶχε, ταῦτα ἐπιτρέπει τῷ μαθητῇ, τῶν ἐπισκόπων λέγω τὰς χειροτονίας, καὶ τὰ ἄλλα πάντα, ὅσα ἐδεῖτό τινος ἐπιδιορθώσεως, ἢ, ὡς ἂν εἴποι τις, πλείονος καταρτισμοῦ. Τί λέγεις, εἰπέ μοι; τὰ σὰ προσδιορθοῦται; καὶ οὐχ ἡγῇ τὸ πρᾶγμα αἰσχρὸν οὐδὲ αἰσχύνην σοι φέρειν; Οὐδαμῶς: πρὸς γὰρ τὸ κοινὸν κέρδος ὁρῶ μόνον: εἴτε δὲ δι' ἐμοῦ, εἴτε δι' ἑτέρου γένοιτο, οὐδὲν ἐμοὶ διαφέρει Οὕτω τὸν προεστῶτα χρὴ διακεῖσθαι, μὴ τὴν ἰδίαν τιμὴν ζητεῖν, ἀλλὰ τὸ κοινῇ συμφέρον. Καὶ καταστήσῃς, φησὶ, κατὰ πόλιν πρεσβυτέρους. Τοὺς ἐπισκόπους ἐνταῦθά φησι, καθὼς ἀλλαχοῦ ἡμῖν εἴρηται. Ὡς ἐγώ σοι διεταξάμην: εἴ τις ἀνέγκλητος. _Κατὰ πόλιν, φησίν: οὐ γὰρ ἐβούλετο πᾶσαν τὴν νῆσον ἐπιτετράφθαι ἑνὶ, ἀλλ' ἕκαστον ἰδίαν ἔχειν φροντίδα καὶ μέριμναν: οὕτω γὰρ αὐτῷ τε εἶναι τὸν πόνον κοῦφον, καὶ τοὺς ἀρχομένους πλείονος ἀπολαύσεσθαι τῆς ἐπιμελείας, εἴ γε μὴ εἰς πολλῶν Ἐκκλησιῶν προστασίαν ὁ διδάσκαλος περιέρχοιτο, ἀλλὰ σχολάζοι μιᾷ μόνῃ, καὶ ταύτην κατακοσμοῖ. Εἴ τις, φησὶν, ἀνέγκλητος, μιᾶς γυναικὸς ἀνὴρ, τέκνα ἔχων πιστὰ, μὴ ἐν κατηγορίᾳ ἀσωτίας, ἢ ἀνυπότακτα. Τίνος ἕνεκεν καὶ τὸν τοιοῦτον εἰς μέσον παράγει; Ἐπιστομίζει τοὺς αἱρετικοὺς τοὺς τὸν γάμον διαβάλλοντας, δεικνὺς ὅτι τὸ πρᾶγμα οὐκ ἔστιν ἐναγὲς, ἀλλ' οὕτω τίμιον, ὡς μετ' αὐτοῦ δύνασθαι καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἅγιον ἀναβαίνειν θρόνον: ἐν ταυτῷ δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἀσελγεῖς κολάζων, καὶ οὐκ ἀφιεὶς μετὰ δευτέρου γάμου τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐγχειρίζεσθαι ταύτην. Ὁ γὰρ πρὸς τὴν ἀπελθοῦσαν μηδεμίαν φυλάξας εὔνοιαν, πῶς ἂν οὗτος γένοιτο προστάτης καλός; τίνα δὲ οὐκ ἂν ὑποσταίη κατηγορίαν; Ἴστε γὰρ ἅπαντες, ἴστε ὅτι εἰ μὴ κεκώλυται παρὰ τῶν νόμων τὸ δευτέροις ὁμιλεῖν γάμοις, ἀλλ' ὅμως πολλὰς ἔχει τὸ πρᾶγμα κατηγορίας. Οὐδεμίαν οὖν παρέχειν λαβὴν τοῖς ἀρχομένοις τὸν ἄρχοντα βούλεται. Διὰ τοῦτο τίθησιν, Εἴ τις ἀνέγκλητος, τουτέστιν, εἰ κατηγορίας ὁ βίος ἐλεύθερος αὐτῷ γέγονεν, εἰ μηδεὶς ἔσχεν ἐπισκῆψαι ἐν τῇ ζωῇ. Ἄκουε τοῦ Χριστοῦ λέγοντος: Εἰ γὰρ τὸ φῶς, φησὶ, τὸ ἐν σοὶ ᾖ σκότος, τὸ σκότος πόσον; Τέκνα ἔχων πιστὰ, μὴ ἐν κατηγορίᾳ ἀσωτίας, ἢ ἀνυπότακτα. Σκοπήσωμεν πῶς πολλὴν καὶ ὑπὲρ τῶν παίδων ποιεῖται τὴν πρόνοιαν. Ὁ γὰρ τῶν αὑτοῦ παίδων διδάσκαλος γενέσθαι μὴ δυνηθεὶς, πῶς ἂν ἑτέρων γένοιτο; Εἰ οὓς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εἶχε μεθ' ἑαυτοῦ καὶ ἔτρεφε, καὶ καθ' ὧν καὶ παρὰ τῶν νόμων, καὶ παρὰ τῆς φύσεως εἶχεν ἐξουσίαν, τούτους ῥυθμίσαι οὐκ ἴσχυσε, πῶς ἂν τοὺς ἔξωθεν ὠφελῆσαι δυνήσεται; Εἰ μὴ γὰρ πολλὴ νωθεία εἴη πατρὸς, οὐκ ἂν ὧν ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἔλαβεν ἐξουσίαν, τούτους περιεῖδε γενομένους κακούς. Οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν, οὐκ ἔστιν, ἐξ ἀρχῆς μετὰ πολλῆς τραφέντα τῆς ἐπιμελείας γενέσθαι κακὸν, καὶ πολλῆς ἀπολαύσαντα σπουδῆς: οὐ γάρ ἐστι φύσει τὰ ἁμαρτήματα, ἵνα τοσαύτης περιγένηται προνοίας. Εἰ δὲ ἐν δευτέρῳ τὰ τῶν παίδων ἐτίθετο, περὶ τὰ χρήματα σχολάζων, καὶ οὐ τοσαύτην αὐτῶν ἐποιεῖτο σπουδὴν, καὶ οὕτως ἀνάξιος. Εἰ γὰρ, ὅπου ἡ φύσις ἠνάγκαζεν, οὕτως ἄστοργος ἦν, ἢ οὕτως ἀνόητος, ὡς μᾶλλον τῶν χρημάτων φροντίζειν αὐτὸν ἢ αὐτῶν, πῶς ἂν οὗτος ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον ἀναχθείη καὶ τὴν τοσαύτην ἀρχήν; Εἰ μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ἠδύνατο, πολλὴ τῆς νωθείας ἡ κατηγορία: εἰ δὲ οὐκ ἐσπούδασε, πολλὴ τῆς ἀστοργίας ἡ μέμψις. Ὁ τοίνυν τῶν παίδων ἀμελῶν τῶν ἑαυτοῦ, πῶς τῶν ἀλλοτρίων ἐπιμελήσεται; Καὶ οὐκ εἶπε μὴ ἁπλῶς ἄσωτος, ἀλλὰ μηδὲ διαβολὴν ἔχειν τοιαύτην, μηδὲ πονηρᾶς εἶναι δόξης. Δεῖ γὰρ τὸν ἐπίσκοπον, φησὶν, ἀνέγκλητον εἶναι ὡς Θεοῦ οἰκονόμον, μὴ αὐθάδη, μὴ ὀργίλον, μὴ πάροινον, μὴ πλήκτην. βʹ. Ὁ μὲν γὰρ ἔξωθεν ἄρχων, ἐπειδὴ νόμῳ κρατεῖ καὶ ἀνάγκῃ, εἰκότως οὐ πολλαχοῦ τῆς τῶν ἀρχομένων γνώμης κοινωνεῖ: ὁ μέντοι ἑκόντων ὀφείλων ἄρχειν, καὶ χάριν αὐτῷ τῆς ἀρχῆς εἰδότων, ἂν οὕτω τὸ πρᾶγμα καταστήσῃ, ὡς ἀπὸ τῆς οἰκείας γνώμης μόνον πάντα ποιεῖν, καὶ μηδενὶ μεταδιδῷ λόγου, τυραννικώτερον μᾶλλον ἢ δημοτικώτερον τὴν ἐπιστασίαν πεποίηται. Δεῖ γὰρ, φησὶν, ἀνέγκλητον εἶναι ὡς Θεοῦ οἰκονόμον, μὴ αὐθάδη, μὴ ὀργίλον. Πῶς γὰρ ἑτέρους παιδεύσει κρατεῖν τοῦ πάθους τούτου, ἑαυτὸν μὴ παιδεύσας; Εἰς πολλὰ γὰρ ἡ ἀρχὴ ἐξάγει, καὶ χαλεπώτερον ποιεῖ καὶ δυσάρεστον καὶ τὸν σφόδρα ἐπιεικῆ, μυρίας ἀνάγκας περιιστᾶσα ὀργῆς: ἂν μὴ ᾖ τοῦτο μεμελετηκὼς πρότερον, καὶ χαλεπώτερος ἔσται, καὶ πολλὰ διαφθερεῖ καὶ ἀπολέσει τῶν τῆς ἀρχῆς. Μὴ πάροινον, μὴ πλήκτην. Τὸν ὑβριστὴν ἐνταῦθά φησι: νουθετοῦντα γὰρ ἢ ἐπιπλήττοντα πάντα χρὴ ποιεῖν, μὴ ὑβρίζοντα: ποία γὰρ ἀνάγκη ὕβρεως, εἰπέ μοι; Φοβεῖν χρὴ τῇ τῆς γεέννης ἀπειλῇ, δεδίττεσθαι, καθικνεῖσθαι. Ὁ γὰρ ὑβρισθεὶς θρασύτερος γίνεται καὶ μᾶλλον καταφρονεῖ τοῦ ὑβρίζοντος. Οὐδὲν γὰρ οὕτω ποιεῖ καταφρόνησιν, ὡς ὕβρις, καὶ αἰσχύνει τὸν ὑβρίζοντα μᾶλλον, καὶ οὐκ ἀφίησιν εἶναι αἰδέσιμον ὡς δεῖ. Πολλῆς αὐτοῖς τῆς εὐλαβείας γέμειν τὸν λόγον χρὴ, ἐν τοῖς ἁμαρτήμασι μνήμην ἔχειν τῆς μελλούσης κρίσεως, πάσης δὲ ὕβρεως εἶναι καθαρόν: εἰ δέ τινες εἶεν οἱ κωλύοντες τὰ δέοντα ποιεῖν, μετὰ πάσης αὐθεντίας μετιέναι τὸ πρᾶγμα. Μὴ πλήκτην, φησίν. Ἰατρός ἐστιν ὁ διδάσκαλος τῶν ψυχῶν: ὁ δὲ ἰατρὸς οὐ πλήττει, ἀλλὰ τὸν πεπληγότα διορθοῦται καὶ θεραπεύει. Μὴ αἰσχροκερδῆ, ἀλὰ φιλόξενον, φιλάγαθον, σώφρονα, δίκαιον, ὅσιον, ἐγκρατῆ, ἀντεχόμενον τοῦ κατὰ τὴν διδαχὴν πιστοῦ λόγου. Εἶδες πόσην ἐπίτασιν ἀρετῆς ἀπῄτησε; Μὴ αἰσχροκερδῆ, φησί: τουτέστι, πολλὴν ὑπεροψίαν χρημάτων ἐπιδεικνύμενον: Φιλόξενον, φιλάγαθον, σώφρονα, δίκαιον, ὅσιον: τὰ αὑτοῦ πάντα τοῖς δεομένοις, φησὶ, προϊέμενον: ἐγκρατῆ. Οὐ τὸν νηστευτὴν εἶπεν ἐνταῦθα, ἀλλὰ τὸν πάθους κρατοῦντα, τὸν καὶ γλώττης καὶ χειρὸς καὶ ὀφθαλμῶν ἀκολάστων: τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν ἐγκράτεια, τὸ μηδενὶ ὑποσύρεσθαι πάθει. Ἀντεχόμενον τοῦ κατὰ τὴν διδαχὴν πιστοῦ λόγου. Πιστοῦ ἐνταῦθα τοῦ ἀληθοῦς φησιν, ἢ τοῦ διὰ πίστεως παραδεδομένου, οὐ δεομένου συλλογισμῶν οὐδὲ ζητημάτων. Ἀντεχόμενον, φροντίζοντα, ἔργον τοῦτο ποιούμενον. Τί οὖν, ἂν λόγων ἄπειρος ᾖ τῶν ἔξωθεν; Διὰ τοῦτο εἶπον, Τοῦ κατὰ διδαχὴν πιστοῦ λόγου. Ἵνα δυνατὸς ᾖ καὶ παρακαλεῖν, καὶ τοὺς ἀντιλέγοντας ἐλέγχειν. Ὥστε οὐ χρεία κόμπου ῥημάτων, ἀλλὰ φρενῶν, καὶ Γραφῶν ἐμπειρίας, καὶ νοημάτων δυνάμεως. Οὐχ ὁρᾷς Παῦλον τρεψάμενον τὴν οἰκουμένην ἅπασαν, καὶ μειζόνως ἰσχύσαντα καὶ Πλάτωνος, καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων; Ἀλλ' ἀπὸ τῶν σημείων, φησίν. Οὐκ ἀπὸ τῶν σημείων μόνον: εἰ γὰρ ἐπέλθοις τὰς Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, πολλαχοῦ αὐτὸν εὑρήσεις ἀπὸ τῆς διδασκαλίας κρατοῦντα καὶ πρὸ τῶν σημείων. Ἵνα δυνατὸς ᾖ καὶ παρακαλεῖν ἐν τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ: τουτέστι, πρὸς φυλακὴν τῶν οἰκείων, πρὸς ἀνατροπὴν τῶν ἐχθρῶν. Καὶ τοὺς ἀντιλέγοντας ἐλέγχειν. Τούτου γὰρ μὴ ὄντος, πάντα οἴχεται. Ὁ γὰρ οὐκ εἰδὼς μάχεσθαι τοῖς ἐχθροῖς, καὶ αἰχμαλωτίζειν πᾶν νόημα εἰς τὴν ὑπακοὴν τοῦ Χριστοῦ, καὶ λογισμοὺς καθαιρεῖν: ὁ οὐκ εἰδὼς ἃ χρὴ περὶ τῆς ὀρθῆς διδάσκειν διδασκαλίας, πόῤῥω ἔστω θρόνου διδασκαλικοῦ. Τὰ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλα καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἀρχομένοις εὕροι τις ἂν, οἷον τὸ ἀνέγκλητον, τὸ τέκνα ἔχειν ἐν ὑποταγῇ, τὸ φιλόξενον, τὸ δίκαιον, τὸ ὅσιον: ὃ δὲ μάλιστα χαρακτηρίζει τὸν διδάσκαλον, τοῦτό ἐστι, τὸ δύνασθαι κατηχεῖν τὸν λόγον, οὗ πρόνοια οὐδεμία νῦν. Εἰσὶ γὰρ πολλοὶ καὶ ἀνυπότακτοι, ματαιολόγοι, καὶ φρεναπάται, μάλιστα ἐκ περιτομῆς: οὓς δεῖ ἐπιστομίζειν. Ὁρᾷς πῶς δείκνυσι πόθεν εἰσὶ τοιοῦτοι; Ἀπὸ τοῦ μὴ θέλειν ἄρχεσθαι, ἀλλὰ ἄρχειν: τοῦτο γὰρ ᾐνίξατο. Ὅταν οὖν πεῖσαι μὴ δυνηθῇς, μὴ διάταττε τούτοις, ἀλλ' ἐπιστόμιζε εἰς τὴν τῶν ἄλλων ὠφέλειαν. Τί οὖν τὸ κέρδος, ὅταν μὴ πείθωνται, ἢ καὶ εἰ ἀνυπότακτοί εἰσι; Τίνος ἕνεκεν ἐπιστομίζειν χρή; Ἵνα ὠφεληθῶσιν ἕτεροι ἐντεῦθεν. Οἵτινες ὅλους οἴκους ἀνατρέπουσι, διδάσκοντες ἃ μὴ δεῖ, αἰσχροῦ κέρδους χάριν. Εἰ γὰρ τὴν διδασκαλίαν ἀνεδέξατο, οὐχ ἱκανὸς δέ ἐστιν ἐκείνοις μάχεσθαι οὐδὲ ἐπιστομίσαι αὐτοὺς οὕτως ἀναισχυντοῦντας, τῆς τῶν ἀπολλυμένων βλάβης καθ' ἕκαστον αἴτιος γενήσεται. Εἰ γὰρ παραινεῖ τις λέγων, Μὴ ζήτει γενέσθαι κριτὴς, εἰ μὴ ἰσχύεις ἐξᾶραι ἀδικίαν, πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἐνταῦθα ἂν εἴποι τις, Μὴ ζήτει γενέσθαι διδάσκαλος, εἰ τῆς τοῦ πράγματος ἀξίας ἀπέχεις, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἑλκόμενος ἀποπήδα. Ὁρᾷς πανταχοῦ τὴν φιλαργυρίαν, τὴν αἰσχροκέρδειαν αἰτίαν τούτων οὖσαν; Διδάσκοντες, φησὶν, ἃ μὴ δεῖ, αἰσχροῦ κέρδους χάριν. γʹ. Οὐδὲν γάρ ἐστιν, ὃ μὴ λυμαίνεται ταῦτα τὰ πάθη: ἀλλ' ὥσπερ πνεύματά τινα ἄγρια εἰς γαληνὸν ἐμπεσόντα πέλαγος, ὅλον αὐτὸ κάτωθεν ἀναμοχλεύει, ὡς καὶ τὴν ἄμμον τοῖς κύμασιν ἀναμίγνυσθαι: οὕτω ταῦτα τὰ πάθη εἰς ψυχὴν εἰσιόντα, πάντα ἄνω καὶ κάτω ποιεῖ, πηροῖ τὸ διορατικὸν τῆς διανοίας, μάλιστα δὲ ἡ τῆς δόξης μανία. Χρημάτων μὲν γὰρ εὔκολον καταφρονῆσαι τῷ βουλομένῳ: τῆς δὲ παρὰ τῶν πολλῶν τιμῆς ὑπεριδεῖν, πολλοῦ δεῖ πόνου, μεγάλης φιλοσοφίας, ψυχῆς τινος ἀγγελικῆς αὐτῆς ἁπτομένης τῆς κορυφῆς τῆς τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. Οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν, οὐκ ἔστιν οὐδὲν οὕτω πάθος τυραννικὸν καὶ πανταχοῦ κρατοῦν, ἐκ πλείονος μὲν καὶ ἐλάττονος μοίρας, πανταχοῦ δὲ ὅμως. Πῶς ἂν οὖν αὐτοῦ περιγενοίμεθα, εἰ καὶ μὴ κατὰ κράτος, ἀλλὰ κἂν ἐξ ἐλαχίστου μέρους; Ἂν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀναβλέπωμεν, ἂν τὸν Θεὸν σχῶμεν πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν, ἂν μείζω τῶν γηίνων λάβωμεν λογισμόν. Ἐννόησον, ὅταν ἐπιθυμῇς δόξης, ὅτι αὐτῆς ἐπέτυχες, καὶ μάθε τὸ τέλος, καὶ οὐδὲν εὑρήσεις: ἐννόησον ὅσην ἔχει τὴν ζημίαν τὸ πρᾶγμα, ὅσων καὶ ἡλίκων ἀποστερεῖ ἀγαθῶν: τοὺς μὲν γὰρ πόνους ὑποστήσῃ καὶ τοὺς κινδύνους, τῶν δὲ καρπῶν ἀποστερηθήσῃ καὶ τῶν ἐπάθλων: ἐννόει ὅτι οἱ πλεῖστοι κακοὶ, καὶ καταφρόνησον αὐτῶν τῆς δόξης. Καθ' ἕνα ἕκαστον ἀναλόγισαι τίς ἐστι, καὶ ὄψει τὸ πρᾶγμα γέλωτος γέμον: ὄψει ὅτι αἰσχύνη μᾶλλον, ἢ δόξα τὸ πρᾶγμά ἐστι: καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἀνάγαγε τὸν λογισμὸν ἐπὶ τὸ ἄνω θέατρον. Ὅταν ἀγαθόν τι πράττων ἐννοῇς, ὅτι δεῖ καὶ ἀνθρώποις δεῖξαι, καί τινας ἐπιζητῇς θεατὰς τοῦ πράγματος, καὶ ὠδίνῃς ὥστε ὀφθῆναι: ἐννόησον ὅτι ὁ Θεὸς ὁρᾷ, καὶ πᾶσαν ἐκείνην σβεννύεις τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν: ἀναχώρησον ἐκ τῆς γῆς, πρὸς ἐκεῖνο ἴδε τὸ θέατρον τὸ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς. Ἄνθρωποι κἂν ἐπαινέσωσιν, ἀλλ' ὕστερον ἐμέμψαντο, ἀλλὰ φθονοῦσιν, ἀλλ' ἐπιλαμβάνονται: κἂν μὴ τοῦτο ποιῶσιν, οὐδὲν ὅλως ὠφελήσουσι τὸν ἐπαινούμενον: ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ Θεοῦ οὐχ οὕτως, ἀλλὰ χαίρει ἐπαινῶν ἡμῶν τὰ κατορθώματα. Εἶπες ὀρθῶς, καὶ κρότων ἐπέτυχες; καὶ τί τὸ κέρδος; Εἰ μὲν γὰρ ὠφελήθησαν οἱ κροτήσαντες καὶ μετεβάλοντο καὶ βελτίους ἐγένοντο, καὶ τῶν προτέρων κακῶν ἀπέστησαν, δεῖ χαίρειν ὄντως, οὐκ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐπαίνοις τοῖς γενομένοις, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τῇ μεταβολῇ τῇ καλῇ καὶ θαυμαστῇ. Εἰ δὲ διαπαντὸς μὲν ἐπαινοῦντες καὶ θορυβοῦντες καὶ κροτοῦντες διατελοῦσι, καρποῦνται δὲ οὐδὲν ἀπὸ τῶν κρότων, ἀλγεῖν μᾶλλον χρὴ, ὅτι αὐτοῖς εἰς κρῖμα ταῦτα γίνεται. Ἀλλ' ἐπὶ εὐλαβείᾳ δόξαν ἔχεις; Ἂν μὲν ὄντως ᾖς εὐλαβὴς, καὶ μηδὲν ἑαυτῷ σύνοιδας πονηρὸν, χαίρειν δεῖ, οὐκ ἐπειδὴ δοκεῖς, ἀλλ' ἐπειδὴ εἶ: ἂν μέντοι μὴ ὢν, τῆς τῶν πολλῶν δόξης ἐπιθυμῇς, ἐννόει ὅτι οὐχ οὗτοι κρινοῦσιν ἡμῖν κατ' ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν, ἀλλ' ὁ τὰ λανθάνοντα μετὰ ἀκριβείας ἐπιστάμενος. Εἰ δὲ συνειδὼς ἑαυτῷ ἁμαρτήματα, καθαρὸς εἶναι παρὰ πᾶσιν ὑποπτεύῃ, οὐ μόνον οὐ χαίρειν δεῖ, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀλγεῖν καὶ στένειν πικρὸν, τὴν ἡμέραν ἐννοοῦντα συνεχῶς, καθ' ἣν πάντα ἀποκαλύπτεται, καθ' ἣν τὰ κρυπτὰ τοῦ σκότους φωτίζεται. Τιμῆς ἀπολαύεις; διακρούου ταύτην, εἰδὼς ὅτι σε ὀφειλέτην καθίστησιν. Οὐδείς σοι παρέχει τιμήν; καὶ χαίρειν δεῖ ἐπὶ τούτῳ: καὶ γάρ σοι μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων καὶ τοῦτο ὁ Θεὸς προβαλεῖται, ὅτι τιμῆς ἀπήλαυσας. Ἢ οὐχ ὁρᾷς, ὡς μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων εὐεργεσιῶν καὶ τοῦτο ἐγκαλεῖ ὁ Θεὸς διὰ τοῦ προφήτου: Ἔλαβον ἐκ τῶν υἱῶν ὑμῶν εἰς προφήτας, καὶ ἐκ τῶν νεανίσκων ὑμῶν εἰς ἁγιασμόν; Κἂν τοῦτο τοίνυν κερδανεῖς, ὅτι οὐκ ἔσῃ ὑπεύθυνος μείζονι τιμωρίᾳ. Ὁ μὲν γὰρ μὴ τιμώμενος ἐν τῷ παρόντι βίῳ, καὶ καταφρονούμενος καὶ οὐδὲ λόγου τινὸς ἀπολαύων, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὑβριζόμενος καὶ διαπτυόμενος, εἰ καὶ μηδὲν ἕτερον, τοῦτο γοῦν καρποῦται τὸ μὴ καὶ τούτου ὑπεύθυνος εἶναι, τοῦ τιμηθῆναι παρὰ τῶν ὁμοδούλων. Καὶ διὰ πολλὰ δὲ ἕτερα κερδαίνει ἐντεῦθεν: συστέλλεται, ταπεινοῦται, οὐδὲ, ἐὰν θέλῃ, μέγα φρονήσει ποτὲ, εἰ ἑαυτῷ μᾶλλον προσέχει. Ὁ μέντοι πολλῆς ἀπολαύων τιμῆς, πρὸς τῷ καὶ ὀφλημάτων εἶναι μεγάλων ὑπεύθυνος, καὶ εἰς ἀπόνοιαν αἴρεται καὶ εἰς κενοδοξίαν, καὶ γίνεται δοῦλος ἀνθρώπων. Εἶτα τῆς δεσποτείας ταύτης αὐξομένης, πολλὰ ἀναγκάζεται ποιεῖν, ὧν οὐ βούλεται. δʹ. Ὡς οὖν εἰδότες ὅτι τοῦτο βέλτιον ἡμῖν, ἢ ἐκεῖνο, μήτε ζητῶμεν τιμὰς, καὶ τὰς παρεχομένας διακρουώμεθα, ἀποῤῥίπτωμεν ἀφ' ἑαυτῶν, σβεννύωμεν τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν ταύτην. Ταῦτα καὶ πρὸς ἄρχοντας καὶ πρὸς ἀρχομένους ἡμῖν εἴρηται. Ψυχὴ γὰρ τιμῆς ἐπιθυμοῦσα καὶ τοῦ δοξάζεσθαι, οὐκ ὄψεται τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν. Οὐκ ἐμὸς οὗτος ὁ λόγος, οὐδὲ ἐμαυτοῦ λέγω ῥήματα, ἀλλὰ τοῦ θείου Πνεύματος: οὐκ ὄψεται, κἂν ἀρετὴν ἐργάζηται. Ἀπέχουσι γὰρ, φησὶ, τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. Ὁ τοίνυν μισθὸν μὴ λαμβάνων, πῶς ὄψεται τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν; Οὐ κωλύω δόξης ἐφίεσθαι, ἀλλὰ δόξης βούλομαι τῆς ἀληθοῦς τῆς παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ: Οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος, φησὶν, οὐκ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων, ἀλλ' ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ. Ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ ὦμεν εὐλαβεῖς, μὴ περικείμενοι τῦφον πολὺν καὶ σκηνὴν καὶ ὑπόκρισιν: ῥίψωμεν τοῦ προβάτου τὴν δορὰν, μᾶλλον δὲ γενώμεθα πρόβατα: οὐδὲν τῆς τῶν ἀνθρώπων δόξης οὐδαμινέστερον. Εἰπὲ γάρ μοι, ἐὰν ἴδῃς παίδων πλῆθος μικρῶν, ὑπομαζίων λέγω, ἆρα ἐπιθυμεῖς τῆς δόξης τῆς παρ' ἐκείνων; Οὕτω πρὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους διάκεισο πάντας δόξης ἕνεκεν. Διὰ τοῦτο κενοδοξία λέγεται. Οὐχ ὁρᾷς τὰ προσωπεῖα, ἃ περιτίθενται οἱ ἐπὶ τῆς σκηνῆς; πῶς μὲν καλὰ, πῶς δὲ λαμπρὰ, πῶς δὲ εἰς τὴν ἐσχάτην ἀκρίβειαν τῆς εὐμορφίας διαπεπλασμένα; ἔχεις μοι δεῖξαι ὄψιν τοιαύτην ἐπὶ τῆς ἀληθείας; Οὐδαμῶς. Τί οὖν; ἆρα ἠράσθης αὐτῶν ποτε; Οὔ: διὰ τί; ἐπειδὴ διάκενά ἐστι, καὶ μιμεῖται κάλλος, οὐκ ἔστι δὲ κάλλος. Οὕτω καὶ ἡ δόξα διάκενός ἐστι καὶ μιμεῖται δόξαν, οὐκ ἔστι δὲ δόξα. Ἐκείνη μόνη μένει ἡ φυσικὴ ἡ ἔνδον: αὕτη δὲ ἡ ἔξω ἐπικειμένη ἐπικρύπτει πολλάκις τὴν ἀμορφίαν, ἐπικρύπτει παρὰ ἀνθρώποις, καὶ μέχρι τῆς ἑσπέρας: τοῦ δὲ θεάτρου λυθέντος καὶ τῶν προσωπείων ἐπαρθέντων, ἕκαστος, ὅπερ ἐστὶ, τοῦτο φαίνεται. Μὴ τοίνυν ὡς ἐν σκηνῇ καὶ ἐν ὑποκρίσει τὴν ἀλήθειαν μετέλθωμεν. Εἰπὲ γάρ μοι, τί καλὸν ἔχει τὸ περιβλέπεσθαι παρὰ τῶν πολλῶν; κενοδοξία ἐστὶ, καὶ οὐδὲν ἕτερον: ἐπεὶ ἄνελθε εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν καὶ γενοῦ μόνος, καὶ εὐθέως διεῤῥύη τὸ πᾶν. Ἐνέβαλες εἰς τὴν ἀγοράν; ἐπέστρεψας τοὺς παρόντας; καὶ τί τὸ πλέον; Οὐδέν: ἐσβέσθη καὶ ἀπῆλθεν ὡς καπνὸς διαλυθείς. Τῶν οὖν ἀνυποστάτων οὕτως ἐρῶμεν; καὶ πόσης ταῦτα ἀλογίας, εἰπέ μοι; πόσης ἀνοίας; Πρὸς ἓν τοίνυν ὁρῶμεν μόνον, πῶς ὁ Θεὸς ἐπαινέσει ἂν τοῦτο σκοπῶμεν, οὐδέποτε ζητήσομεν τὰ παρὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ἀλλὰ κἂν γένηται, καταφρονήσομεν, καταγελασόμεθα, διαπτύσομεν: ὡς ἂν εἰ χρυσίου μὲν ἐφιέμενοι, πηλὸν δὲ λαμβάνοντες, οὕτω διακεισόμεθα. Μὴ ἐπαινείτω σε ὁ δεῖνα: οὐδὲν γὰρ ὠφέλησε: κἂν ψέξῃ, οὐδὲν ἔβλαψεν. Ἐπὶ δὲ τοῦ Θεοῦ ταῦτα ἀμφότερα ἔχει τι κέρδος καὶ ζημίαν: τὰ δὲ παρὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων πάντα μάταια. Καὶ κατὰ τοῦτο ἐξισούμεθα τῷ Θεῷ, ὅτι οὐ δεῖται τῆς παρ' ἀνθρώπων δόξης ἐκεῖνος: Δόξαν γὰρ, φησὶ, παρὰ ἀνθρώπων οὐ λαμβάνω. Μικρὸν μὲν οὖν τοῦτο, εἰπέ μοι; Ὅταν μὴ θέλῃς καταφρονεῖν δόξης, εἰπὲ ὅτι τῷ Θεῷ ἴσος γίνομαι καταφρονήσας, καὶ εὐθέως καταφρονήσεις. Οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν, ἄνθρωπον δόξης δοῦλον, μὴ πάντων εἶναι δοῦλον, καὶ αὐτῶν τῶν ἀνδραπόδων δουλικώτερον. Οὐ γὰρ ἐπιτάττομεν τοιαῦτα τοῖς δούλοις τοῖς ἡμετέροις, οἷα ἐκείνη τοῖς ὑπ' αὐτῆς ἁλοῦσιν: αἰσχρὰ καὶ αἰσχύνης γέμοντα πράγματα καὶ φθέγγεσθαι ποιεῖ καὶ πάσχειν: καὶ μάλιστα ὅταν ἴδῃ ὑπακούοντας, ἐπιτείνει μᾶλλον τὰ ἐπιτάγματα. Φύγωμεν οὖν, φύγωμεν, παρακαλῶ, τὴν δουλείαν ταύτην. Πῶς δὲ, φησὶ, δυνησόμεθα; Ἂν φιλοσοφήσωμεν περὶ τῶν ἐνταῦθα, ἂν ἴδωμεν ὅτι τὰ παρόντα πράγματα ὄναρ ἐστὶ καὶ σκιὰ, καὶ οὐδὲν ἕτερον, εὐκόλως αὐτῆς περιεσόμεθα, καὶ οὔτε ἐν τοῖς μικροῖς, οὔτε ἐν τοῖς μεγάλοις ἁλωσόμεθα: ἂν δὲ μὴ ἐν τοῖς μικροῖς καταφρονῶμεν, καὶ ἐν τοῖς μεγίστοις ῥᾳδίως περιπεσούμεθα. Πόῤῥωθεν οὖν ἀναστέλλωμεν αὐτῆς τὰς πηγάς: αὗται δέ εἰσιν ἄνοια καὶ τὸ ταπεινὴν κεκτῆσθαι ψυχήν: ὡς ἐὰν ὑψηλὸν λάβωμεν φρόνημα, δυνησόμεθα καὶ τῆς παρὰ τῶν πολλῶν τιμῆς ὑπεριδεῖν, καὶ πρὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν τεῖναι τὴν διάνοιαν, καὶ τῶν ἐκεῖ ἐπιτυχεῖν ἀγαθῶν: ὧν γένοιτο πάντας ἡμᾶς ἐπιτυχεῖν χάριτι καὶ φιλανθρωπίᾳ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, μεθ' οὗ τῷ Πατρὶ ἅμα τῷ ἁγίῳ Πνεύματι δόξα, κράτος, τιμὴ, νῦν καὶ ἀεὶ, καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἀμήν.