ΤΟΥ ΕΝ ΑΓΙΟΙΣ ΠΑΤΡΟΣ ΗΜΩΝ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ ΑΡΧΙΕΠΙΣΚΟΠΟΥ ΚΩΝΣΤΑΝΤΙΝΟΥΠΟΛΕΩΣ, ΤΟΥ ΧΡΥΣΟΣΤΟΜΟΥ, ΥΠΟΜΝΗΜΑ ΕΙΣ ΤΗΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΙΤΟΝ ΕΠΙΣΤΟΛΗΝ. ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Αʹ. Παῦλος δοῦλος Θ
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Βʹ. Τούτου χάριν κατέλιπόν σε ἐν Κρήτῃ, ἵνα τὰ λείποντα ἐπιδιορθώσῃ, καὶ καταστήσῃς κατὰ πόλιν πρεσβυτέρους, ὡς ἐγώ σοι διεταξάμην: εἴ τίς ἐστι
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Γʹ. Εἶπέ τις ἐξ αὐτῶν ἴδιος αὐτῶν προφήτης: Κρῆ τες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται, κακὰ θηρία, γαστέρες ἀργαί. Ἡ μαρτυρία αὕτη ἐστὶν ἀληθής. Δι' ἣν αἰτίαν ἔλεγχε
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Δʹ. Πρεσβύτας νηφαλίους εἶναι, σεμνοὺς, σώφρο νας, ὑγιαίνοντας τῇ πίστει, τῇ ἀγάπῃ, τῇ ὑπομονῇ: πρεσβύτιδας ὡσαύτως ἐν καταστή ματι ἱεροπρεπεῖς
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Εʹ. Ἐπεφάνη γὰρ ἡ χάρις τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡ σωτήριος πᾶ σιν ἀνθρώποις, παιδεύουσα ἡμᾶς, ἵνα ἀρνησά μενοι τὴν ἀσέβειαν καὶ τὰς κοσμικὰς ἐπιθυμίας, σωφρόν
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Ϛʹ. Καὶ περὶ τούτων βούλομαί σε διαβεβαιοῦσθαι, ἵνα φροντίζωσι καλῶν ἔργων προΐστασθαι οἱ πεπιστευκότες τῷ Θεῷ. Ταῦτά ἐστι καλὰ καὶ ὠφέλιμα τοῖ
Titus i. 12–14
“One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies. This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith; Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, that turn from the truth.”
There are several questions here. First, who it was that said this? Secondly, why Paul quoted it? Thirdly, why he brings forward a testimony that is not correct? Let us then offer a seasonable solution of these, having premised some other things. For when Paul was discoursing to the Athenians, in the course of his harangue he quoted these words, “To the Unknown God”: and again, “For we also are His offspring, as certain also of your own poets have said.” (Acts xvii. 23, 28.) It was Epimenides28 The words here quoted are found in Callimachus, Hymn ad Jov. v. 8, to whom Theodoret ascribes them. The “evil beasts,” &c., is found in Hesiod, Theogon. v. 26, applied to shepherds. Downes suggested that Epimenides may have borrowed from Hesiod, and Callimachus from him. who said this, himself a Cretan, and whence he was move moved to say it is necessary to mention. It is this. The Cretans have a tomb of Jupiter, with this inscription. “Here lieth Zan, whom they call Jove.” On account of this inscription, then, the poet ridiculing the Cretans as liars, as he proceeds, introduces, to increase the ridicule, this passage.
For even a tomb, O King, of thee
They made, who never diedst, but aye shalt be.
If then this testimony is true, observe what a difficulty! For if the poet is true who said that they spoke falsely, in asserting that Jupiter could die, as the Apostle says, it is a fearful thing! Attend, beloved, with much exactness. The poet said that the Cretans were liars for saying that Jupiter was dead. The Apostle confirmed his testimony: so, according to the Apostle, Jupiter is immortal: for he says, “this witness is true”! What shall we say then? Or rather how shall we solve this? The Apostle has not said this, but simply and plainly applied this testimony to their habit of falsehood. Else why has he not added, “For even a tomb, O king, of thee, they made”? So that the Apostle has not said this, but only that one had well said, “The Cretians are always liars.” But it is not only from hence that we are confident that Jupiter is not a God. From many other arguments we are able to prove this, and not from the testimony of the Cretans. Besides, he has not said, that in this they were liars. Nay and it is more probable that they were deceived as to this point too.29 He seems to mean in thinking Jupiter a God. For they believed in other gods, on which account the Apostle calls them liars.
And as to the question, why does he cite the testimonies of the Greeks? It is because we put them most to confusion when we bring our testimonies and accusations from their own writers, when we make those their accusers, who are admired among themselves. For this reason he elsewhere quotes those words, “To the Unknown God.” For the Athenians, as they did not receive all their gods from the beginning, but from time to time admitted some other, as those from the Hyperboreans, the worship of Pan, and the greater and the lesser mysteries, so these same, conjecturing that besides these there might be some other God, of whom they were ignorant, that they might be duly devout to him also, erected to him an altar, with this inscription, “To the Unknown God,” thereby almost implying, “if there might be some God unknown to them.” He therefore said to them, Him whom you have by anticipation acknowledged, I declare to you. But those words, “We also are His offspring,” are quoted from Aratus, who having previously said, “Earth’s paths are full of Jove, the sea is full”—adds, “For we too are His offspring,” in which I conceive he shows that we are sprung from God. How then does Paul wrest what is said of Jupiter to the God of the universe? He has not transferred to God what belongs to Jupiter. But what is applicable to God, and was neither justly nor properly applied to Jupiter, this he restores to God, since the name of God belongs to Him alone, and is not lawfully bestowed upon idols.
And from what writers should he address them? From the Prophets? They would not have believed them. Since with the Jews too he does not argue from the Gospels, but from the Prophets. For this reason he says, “Unto the Jews I became as a Jew, to them that are without law, as without law, to those that are under the Law, as under the Law.” (1 Cor. ix. 20, 21.) Thus does God too, as in the case of the wise men, He does not conduct them by an Angel, nor a Prophet, nor an Apostle, nor an Evangelist, but how? By a star. For as their art made them conversant with these, He made use of such means to guide them. So in the case of the oxen, that drew the ark. “If it goeth up by the way of his own coast, then He hath done us this great evil” (1 Sam. vi. 9.), as their prophets suggested. Do these prophets then speak the truth? No; but he refutes and confounds them out of their own mouths. Again, in the case of the witch, because Saul believed in her, he caused him to hear through her what was about to befall him. Why then did Paul stop the mouth of the spirit, that said, “These men are the servants of the most high God, which show unto us the way of salvation”? (Acts xvi. 17.) And why did Christ hinder the devils from speaking of Him? In this case there was reason, since the miracles were going on. For here it was not a star that proclaimed Him, but He Himself; and the demons again were not worshiped30 i.e. by Saul. 1 Sam. xxviii. 8.; for it was not an image that spoke, that it should be forbidden. He also suffered Balaam to bless, and did not restrain him. Thus He everywhere condescends.
And what wonder? for He permitted opinions erroneous, and unworthy of Himself, to prevail, as that He was a body formerly,31 This word seems to refer to the time when the opinions were allowed to prevail. and that He was visible. In opposition to which He says, “God is a Spirit.” (John iv. 24.) Again, that He delighted in sacrifices, which is far from His nature. And He utters words at variance with His declarations of Himself, and many such things. For He nowhere considers His own dignity, but always what will be profitable to us. And if a father considers not his own dignity, but talks lispingly with his children, and calls their meat and drink not by their Greek names, but by some childish and barbarous words, much more doth God. Even in reproving He condescends, as when He speaks by the prophet, “Hath a nation changed their gods?” (Jer. ii. 11.), and in every part of Scripture there are instances of His condescension both in words and actions.
Ver. 13. “Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith.”
This he says, because their disposition was froward, deceitful, and dissolute. They have these numberless bad qualities; and because they are prone to lying, deceiving, gluttonous, and slothful, severe reproof is necessary. For such characters will not be managed by mildness, “therefore rebuke them.” He speaks not here of Gentiles, but of his own people. “Sharply.” Give them, he says, a stroke that cuts deep. For one method is not to be employed with all, but they are to be differently dealt with, according to their various characters and dispositions. He does not here have recourse to exhortation. For as he who treats with harshness the meek and ingenuous, may destroy them; so he who flatters one that requires severity, causes him to perish, and does not suffer him to be reclaimed.
“That they may be sound in the faith.”
This then is soundness, to introduce nothing spurious, nor foreign. But if they who are scrupulous about meats are not sound, but are sick and weak; for, “Them that are weak,” he says, “receive ye, but not to doubtful disputations” (Rom xiv. 1.); what can be said of those who observe the same fasts, (with the Jews,) who keep the sabbaths, who frequent the places that are consecrated by them? I speak of that at Daphne,32 See on Stat. Hom. xvii. of that which is called the cave of Matrona, and of that plain in Cilicia, which is called Saturn’s. How are these sound? With them a heavier stroke is necessary. Why then does he not do the same with the Romans? Because their dispositions were different, they were of a nobler character.
Ver. 14. “Not giving heed,” he says, “to Jewish fables.”
The Jewish tenets were fables in two ways, because they were imitations, and because the thing was past its season, for such things become fables at last. For when a thing ought not to be done, and being done, is injurious, it is a fable even as it is useless. As then those33 i.e. heathen fables. ought not to be regarded, so neither ought these. For this is not being sound. For if thou believest the Faith, why dost thou add other things, as if the faith were not sufficient to justify? Why dost thou enslave thyself by subjection to the Law? Hast thou no confidence in what thou believest? This is a mark of an unsound and unbelieving mind. For one who is faithful does not doubt, but such an one evidently doubts.
Ver. 15. “Unto the pure,” he says, “all things are pure.”
Thou seest that this is said to a particular purpose.
“But unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure.”
Things then are not clean or unclean from their own nature, but from the disposition of him who partakes of them.
“But even their mind and conscience is defiled.”
Ver. 16. “They profess that they know God; but in works they deny Him, being abominable, and disobedient, and to every good work reprobate.”
The swine therefore is clean. Why then was it forbidden as unclean? It was not unclean by nature; for, “all things are pure.” Nothing is more unclean than a fish, inasmuch as it even feeds upon human flesh. But it was permitted and considered clean. Nothing is more unclean than a bird, for it eats worms; or than a stag, which is said to have its name34 ἔλαφος. from eating serpents. Yet all these were eaten. Why then was the swine forbidden, and many other things? Not because they were unclean, but to check excessive luxury. But had this been said, they would not have been persuaded; they were restrained therefore by the fear of uncleanness. For tell me, if we enquire nicely into these things, what is more unclean than wine; or than water, with which they mostly purified themselves? They touched not the dead, and yet they were cleansed by the dead, for the victim was dead, and with that they were cleansed. This therefore was a doctrine for children. In the composition of wine, does not dung form a part? For as the vine draws moisture from the earth, so does it from the dung that is thrown upon it. In short, if we wish to be very nice, everything is unclean, otherwise if we please not to be nice, nothing is unclean. Yet all things are pure. God made nothing unclean, for nothing is unclean, except sin only. For that reaches to the soul, and defiles it. Other uncleanness is human prejudice.
“But unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled.”
For how can there be anything unclean among the pure? But he that has a weak soul makes everything unclean, and if there be set abroad a scrupulous enquiry into what is clean or unclean, he will touch nothing. For even these things are not clean, I speak of fish, and other things, according to their notions; (for “their mind and conscience,” he says, “is defiled,”) but all are impure. Yet Paul says not so; he turns the whole matter upon themselves. For nothing is unclean, he says, but themselves, their mind and their conscience; and nothing is more unclean than these;35 B. “none of these things is unclean.” but an evil will is unclean.
“They profess that they know God, but in works they deny Him, being abominable and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.”
Chap. ii. ver. 1. “But speak thou the things that become sound doctrine.”
This then is uncleanness. They are themselves unclean. But be not thou silent on that account. Do thy part, although they may not receive thee. Advise and counsel them, though they may not be persuaded. Here he censures them more severely. For they who are mad imagine that nothing stands still, yet this arises not from the objects that are seen, but from the eyes that see. Because they are unsteady and giddy, they think that the earth turns round with them, which yet turns not, but stands firm. The derangement36 al. “the notion,” ὑπόνοια, and so B.; it is better than ἀπόνοια. is of their own state, not from any affection of the element. So it is here, when the soul is unclean, it thinks all things unclean. Therefore scrupulous observances are no mark of purity, but it is the part of purity to be bold in all things. For he that is pure by nature ventures upon all things, they that are defiled, upon nothing. This we may say against Marcion. Seest thou that it is a mark of purity to be superior to all defilement, to touch nothing implies impurity. This holds even with respect to God. That He assumed flesh is a proof of purity; if through fear He had not taken it, there would have been defilement. He who eats not things that seem unclean, is himself unclean and weak, he who eats, is neither. Let us not call such pure, they are the unclean. He is pure, who dares to feed upon all things. All this caution we ought to exercise towards the things that defile the soul. For that is uncleanness, that is defilement. None of these things is so. Those who have a vitiated palate think what is set before them is unclean, but this is the effect of their disorder. It becomes us therefore to understand the nature of things pure, and things unclean.
Moral. What then is unclean? Sin, malice, covetousness, wickedness.37 Sav. “fornication,” but πονηρία is repeated in the next quotation, and has most authority. As it is written: “Wash you, make you clean, put away the evil of your doings.” (Isa. i. 16.) “Create in me a clean heart, O God.” (Ps. li. 10.) “Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, touch no unclean thing.” (Isa. lii. 52.) These observances were emblems of purifications.38 al. “of uncleannesses.” “Touch not a dead body,” it is said. For sin is such, it is dead and offensive. “The leper is unclean.” For sin is a leprosy, various and multiform. And that they had this meaning, appears from what follows. For if the leprosy is general, and overspreads the whole body, he is clean; if it is partial, he is unclean. Thus you see that what is various and changeable is the unclean thing. He again whose seed passes from him is unclean, consider one that is so in soul, casting away his seed. He who is uncircumcised is unclean. These things are not allegorical39 This hardly makes sense. Read ἀληθεία for ἀλληγορία. “These things are not truth, but types,” which is his usual way of speaking. Just above, Savile’s text is followed. but typical, for he who does not cut off the wickedness of his heart is the unclean person. He who worketh on the Sabbath is to be stoned, that is, he who is not at all times devoted to God, shall perish.40 See on Stat. Hom. xii., where it appears that he does not exclude a reference to the Lord’s Day. You see how many varieties of uncleanness there are. The woman in child-bed is unclean. Yet God made child-birth, and the seed of copulation. Why then is the woman unclean, unless something further was intimated? And what was this? He intended to produce piety in the soul, and to deter it from fornication. For if she is unclean who has borne a child, much more she who has committed fornication. If to approach his own wife is not altogether pure, much less to have intercourse with the wife of another. He who attends a funeral is unclean, much more he who has mixed in war and slaughter. And many kinds of uncleanness would be found, if it were necessary to recount them all. But these things are not now required of us. But all is transferred to the soul.
For bodily things are nearer to us, from these therefore he introduced instruction. But it is not so now. For we ought not to be confined to figures, and shadows, but to adhere to the truth, and to uphold it: sin is the unclean thing. From that let us flee, from that let us abstain. “If thou comest near it, it will bite41 Sav. δήξεται, which reading Ben. unaccountably neglects, having δέξεται, and in Lat. suscipiet. thee.” (Ecclus. xxi. 2.) Nothing is more unclean than covetousness. Whence is this manifest? From the facts themselves. For what does it not defile? the hands, the soul, the very house where the ill-gotten treasure is laid up. But the Jews consider this as nothing. And yet Moses carried off the bones of Joseph. Samson drank from the jawbone of an ass, and ate honey from the lion, and Elijah was nourished by ravens, and by a widow woman. And tell me, if we were to be precise about these things, what can be more unclean than our books, which are made of the skins of animals? The fornicator, then, is not the only one that is unclean, but others more than he, as the adulterer. But both the one and the other are unclean, not on account of the intercourse, (for according to that reasoning a man cohabiting with his own wife would be unclean,) but because of the wickedness of the act, and the injury done to his neighbor in his nearest interests. Dost thou see that it is wickedness that is unclean? He who had two wives was not unclean, and David who had many wives was not unclean. But when he had one unlawfully, he became unclean. Why? Because he had injured and defrauded his neighbor. And the fornicator is not unclean on account of the intercourse, but on account of the manner of it, because it injures the woman, and they injure one another, making the woman common, and subverting the laws of nature. For she ought to be the wife of one man, since it is said, “Male and female created He them.” (Gen. i. 27.) And, “they twain shall be one flesh.” Not “those many,” but “they twain shall be one flesh.” Here then is injustice, and therefore the act is wicked. Again, when anger exceeds due measure, it makes a man unclean, not in itself, but because of its excess. Since it is not said, “He that is angry,” merely, but “angry without a cause.” Thus every way to desire overmuch is unclean, for it proceeds from a greedy and irrational disposition. Let us therefore be sober, I beseech you, let us be pure, in that which is real purity, that we may be thought worthy to see God, through Jesus Christ our Lord, with whom, &c.
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Γʹ. Εἶπέ τις ἐξ αὐτῶν ἴδιος αὐτῶν προφήτης: Κρῆ τες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται, κακὰ θηρία, γαστέρες ἀργαί. Ἡ μαρτυρία αὕτη ἐστὶν ἀληθής. Δι' ἣν αἰτίαν ἔλεγχε αὐτοὺς ἀποτόμως, ἵνα ὑγιαίνωσιν ἐν τῇ πίστει, μὴ προσέχοντες Ἰουδαϊκοῖς μύθοις καὶ ἐντολαῖς ἀνθρώπων ἀποστρεφομένων τὴν ἀλήθειαν. αʹ. Πολλὰ ἐνταῦθά ἐστι τὰ ζητούμενα, πρῶτον μὲν, τίς ὁ εἰρηκώς: δεύτερον δὲ, τί δήποτε ὁ Παῦλος αὐτοῖς ἐχρήσατο: τρίτον, ὅτι οὐδὲ ὀρθῶς ἔχουσαν μαρτυρίαν παρήγαγε. Φέρε οὖν καὶ ἕτερα προσθέντες οὕτω καιρίαν τὴν λύσιν ἐπαγάγωμεν. Καὶ γὰρ ὅτε τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις διελέγετο, μεταξὺ τῆς δημηγορίας φησὶν, Ἀγνώστῳ Θεῷ: καὶ πάλιν, Τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμὲν, ὡς καί τινες τῶν καθ' ὑμᾶς ποιητῶν εἰρήκασιν. Ἐπιμενίδης οὖν ἐστιν ὁ εἰρηκὼς, Κρὴς καὶ αὐτὸς ὤν: ἀλλὰ πόθεν κινούμενος, ἀναγκαῖον εἰπεῖν τὴν ὑπόθεσιν πρὸς ὑμᾶς: ἔχει δὲ οὕτως: Οἱ Κρῆτες τάφον ἔχουσι τοῦ Διὸς ἐπιγραφέντα τοῦτο: Ἐνταῦθα Ζὰν κεῖται, ὃν [I. τὸν] Δία κικλήσκουσι. Διὰ ταύτην οὖν τὴν ἐπιγραφὴν ὁ ποιητὴς ψεύστας τοὺς Κρῆτας κωμῳδὼν, προϊὼν πάλιν ἐπάγει, αὔξων μᾶλλον τὴν κωμῳδίαν: Καὶ γὰρ τάφον, ὦ ἄνα, σεῖο Κρῆτες ἐτεκτήναντο: σὺ δ' οὐ θάνες: ἐσσὶ γὰρ αἰεί. Εἰ τοίνυν αὕτη ἡ μαρτυρία ἀληθὴς, ὅρα τὸν κίνδυνον ὅσος. Εἰ γὰρ ἀληθὴς ὁ ποιητὴς εἰπὼν ὅτι ἐψεύσαντο, τεθνηκέναι τὸν Δία εἰπόντες, ὥς φησιν ὁ ἀπόστολος, μέγας ὁ κίνδυνος. Προσέχετε, Ἀγαπητοὶ, μετὰ πολλῆς τῆς ἀκριβείας: Εἶπεν ὁ ποιητὴς, ὅτι ψεύδονται οἱ Κρῆτες οἱ τὸν Δία εἰπόντες τετελευτηκέναι: ἐβεβαίωσε τὴν μαρτυρίαν αὐτοῦ ὁ Ἀπόστολος. Οὐκοῦν κατὰ τὸν Ἀπόστολον ἀθάνατος ὁ Ζεύς: Αὕτη γὰρ, φησὶν, ἡ μαρτυρία ἀληθής ἐστι. Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; μᾶλλον δὲ πῶς ἔστι τοῦτο ἐπιλύσασθαι; Οὐ τοῦτο εἶπεν ὁ Ἀπόστολος, ἀλλ' ἁπλῶς οὕτως ἔλαβε τὴν μαρτυρίαν καὶ ἀφελῶς πρὸς τὸ ἦθος αὐτῶν τὸ ἐψευσμένον. Διὰ τί γὰρ μὴ ἐπήγαγε τὸ, Καὶ γὰρ τάφον, ὦ ἄνα, σεῖο Κρῆτες ἐτεκτήναντο; Ὥστε οὐ τοῦτο εἶπεν ὁ Ἀπόστολος, ἀλλ' ὅτι καλῶς ὁ δεῖνα εἶπεν, ὅτι ψεῦσταί εἰσιν οἱ Κρῆτες. Οὐκ ἐντεῦθεν δὲ μόνον ἰσχυριζόμεθα, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστι θεὸς ὁ Ζεύς: ἔνεστι γὰρ καὶ ἑτέρωθεν πολλαχόθεν κατασκευάζοντας, καὶ οὐχὶ ἀπὸ τῆς τῶν Κρητῶν μαρτυρίας, τοῦτο σαφῶς ἀποδεῖξαι. Ἄλλως δὲ οὐκ ἐν τούτῳ εἶπεν αὐτοὺς ψεύδεσθαι: μᾶλλον δὲ εἰκὸς καὶ τοῦτο ἐψεῦσθαι αὐτούς: καὶ γὰρ καὶ ἄλλους ἐνόμιζον θεούς. Διὰ τοῦτο ὁ Ἀπόστολος ψεύστας αὐτοὺς εἶπεν. Ἀλλὰ τὸ ζητούμενον, τί δήποτε ἀπὸ τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν ἄγει τὰς μαρτυρίας. Ὅτι μάλιστα τούτοις ἐντρέπομεν αὐτοὺς, ὅταν οἴκοθεν ἐνέγκωμεν τὰς μαρτυρίας καὶ τὰς κατηγορίας, ὅταν τοὺς παρ' αὐτοῖς θαυμαστοὺς, τούτους ἐπιστήσωμεν αὐτοῖς αἰτιωμένους. Διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἑτέρωθι κέχρηται λέγων, Ἀγνώστῳ Θεῷ. Οἱ γὰρ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐπειδὴ οὐκ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τοὺς θεοὺς πάντας παρέλαβον, ἀλλὰ κατὰ χρόνους, καὶ ἄλλους τινὰς, ὡς τὰ ἐκ τῶν Ὑπερβορέων, ὡς τὰ τοῦ Πανὸς, ὡς τὰ μικρὰ, ὡς τὰ μεγάλα μυστήρια ἐπήγαγον ὕστερον, οὗτοι στοχαζόμενοι ἀπὸ τούτων, ὅτι εἰκὸς καὶ ἄλλον εἶναι θεὸν, ὑπ' αὐτῶν δὲ ἠγνοῆσθαι, ἵνα καὶ περὶ ἐκεῖνον ὦσιν εὐκαθοσίωτοι, τούτῳ βωμὸν ἔστησαν ἐπιγράψαντες, Ἀγνώστῳ Θεῷ, μονονουχὶ τοῦτο δηλοῦντες, καὶ εἴ τις ἄγνωστος εἴη θεός. Εἶπεν οὖν, ὅτι Ὃν προλαβόντες ὑμεῖς ἐπέγνωτε, τοῦτον ἐγὼ καταγγέλλω ὑμῖν. Τὸ δὲ, Τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμὲν, περὶ τοῦ Διὸς εἴρηται τῷ Ἀράτῳ: ὃς ἐπεὶ ἀρχόμενος εἶπε, Μεσταὶ δὲ Διὸς μὲν ἀγυιαὶ, μεστὴ δὲ θάλασσα, τότε ἐπήγαγε τὸ, Τοῦ γὰρ καὶ γένος ἐσμὲν, δεικνὺς οἶμαι κἀκεῖνος ὅτι γεγόναμεν ἐκ Θεοῦ. Πῶς οὖν ὁ Παῦλος τὰ περὶ τοῦ Διὸς εἰρημένα εἰς τὸν Θεὸν τῶν ὅλων εἵλκυσεν; Οὐ τὰ περὶ τοῦ Διὸς εἰρημένα εἵλκυσεν εἰς τὸν Θεὸν, ἀλλὰ τὰ προσήκοντα τῷ Θεῷ, καὶ οὐ γνησίως οὐδὲ κυρίως ἐπιτεθέντα τῷ Διὶ, ταῦτα ἀποδίδωσι τῷ Θεῷ: ἐπεὶ καὶ τὸ, θεὸς, ὄνομα αὐτοῦ μόνου ἐστὶ, καὶ παρανόμως ἐπίκειται τοῖς εἰδώλοις. Ἀλλὰ πόθεν ἐχρῆν αὐτοῖς διαλεχθῆναι; ἀπὸ τῶν προφητῶν; Ἀλλ' οὐκ ἂν ἐπίστευσαν: ἐπεὶ καὶ Ἰουδαίοις οὐδὲν ἀπὸ τῶν Εὐαγγελίων φθέγγεται, ἀλλ' ἀπὸ τῶν προφητῶν: διὰ τοῦτό φησιν, Ἐγενόμην τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὡς Ἰουδαῖος, τοῖς ἀνόμοις ὡς ἄνομος, τοῖς ὑπὸ νόμον ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον. βʹ. Τοῦτο καὶ ὁ Θεὸς ποιεῖ: οἷον ἐπὶ τῶν μάγων, οὐ δι' ἀγγέλου αὐτοὺς ἄγει, οὐ διὰ προφήτου, οὐ δι' ἀποστόλου, οὐ δι' εὐαγγελιστοῦ, ἀλλὰ πόθεν; Διὰ ἄστρου: ἐπειδὴ γὰρ περὶ ταῦτα τὴν τέχνην εἶχον, ἐκεῖθεν αὐτοὺς εἵλκυσε. Πάλιν ἐπὶ τῶν βοῶν ἐπὶ τῆς κιβωτοῦ, Ἐὰν πορευθῶσι, φησὶ, τήνδε τὴν ὁδὸν, ἀληθής ἐστιν ἡ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἀγανάκτησις, καθάπερ οἱ μάντεις ὑπετίθεντο. Οὐκοῦν ἀληθεύουσιν οἱ μάντεις; Ἄπαγε: ἀλλ' ἀπὸ τῶν οἰκείων στομάτων αὐτοὺς ἐλέγχει καὶ καταπλήττει. Πάλιν ἐπὶ τῆς ἐγγαστριμύθου: καὶ γὰρ ἐπειδὴ ταύτῃ ἐπίστευε, διὰ ταύτης ἐποίησεν ἀκοῦσαι τὸν Σαοὺλ τὰ μέλλοντα αὐτὸν καταλαμβάνειν. Τίνος οὖν ἕνεκεν ἐπεστόμισε τὸν δαίμονα ὁ Παῦλος τὸν λέγοντα, Οὗτοι οἱ ἄνθρωποι δοῦλοι τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ ὑψίστου εἰσὶν, οἵτινες καταγγέλλουσιν ἡμῖν ὁδὸν σωτηρίας; τίνος δὲ ἕνεκεν καὶ ὁ Χριστὸς κωλύει τοὺς δαίμονας φθέγγεσθαι; Ἐκεῖ μὲν εἰκότως: καὶ γὰρ τὰ σημεῖα προεχώρει: ἐπεὶ καὶ ἐνταῦθα οὐκ ἀστὴρ ἦν, ἀλλ' αὐτὸς ἑαυτὸν ἐκήρυττε: καὶ οἱ δαίμονες δὲ οὐ προσεκυνοῦντο. Οὐκ ἦν γὰρ εἴδωλον τὸ φθεγγόμενον, ἵνα κωλυθῇ. Καὶ τὸν Βαλαὰμ δὲ εἴασεν εὐλογῆσαι, καὶ οὐκ ἐκώλυσεν. Οὕτω πανταχοῦ συγκαταβαίνει. Καὶ τί τοῦτο θαυμάζεις; Αὐτὸς περὶ ἑαυτοῦ ἀφίησι δόξας πονηρὰς καὶ ἀναξίους ἑαυτοῦ συνίστασθαι, οἷον ὅτι σῶμα ἦν πρότερον, ὅτι ὁρατός: πρὸς τοῦτο γοῦν λέγει, Πνεῦμα ὁ Θεός. Πάλιν ὅτι χαίρει ταῖς θυσίαις, ὅπερ ἦν ἀλλότριον αὐτοῦ, καὶ ῥήματα φθέγγεται ἀπᾴδοντα αὐτοῦ τῆς ὁμολογίας: καὶ ὅσα τοιαῦτα. Οὐδαμοῦ γὰρ τὴν ἀξίαν ὁρᾷ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ, ἀλλὰ πανταχοῦ τὸ ἡμῖν χρήσιμον. Εἰ γὰρ πατὴρ οὐχ ὁρᾷ τὴν ἀξίαν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ, ἀλλὰ συμψελλίζει τοῖς παιδίοις, καὶ τροφὴν καὶ ἐδέσματα καὶ πόματα οὐχ Ἑλληνικοῖς ὀνόμασι καλῶν, ἀλλὰ παιδικῇ τινι διαλέξει καὶ βαρβάρῳ, πολλῷ μᾶλλον ὁ Θεός. Καὶ ὀνειδίζει συγκαταβατικῶς διὰ τοῦ προφήτου, λέγων: Εἰ ἀλλάξονται ἔθνη θεοὺς αὐτῶν: καὶ πανταχοῦ συγκατάβασίς ἐστι τὰ ἐν ταῖς Γραφαῖς, καὶ ῥήματα καὶ πράγματα. Δι' ἣν αἰτίαν, φησὶν, ἔλεγχε αὐτοὺς ἀποτόμως, ἵνα ὑγιαίνωσι τῇ πίστει. Διὰ τοῦτό φησιν, ἐπειδὴ ἦθος αὐτοῖς ἐστιν ἰταμὸν καὶ δολερὸν καὶ ἀκόλαστον. Τάδε μυρία κακὰ αὐτοὶ ἔχουσιν. Ὅταν δὲ καὶ ψεύδωνται προχείρως, καὶ δολεροὶ ὦσι καὶ γαστρίμαργοι καὶ ἀργοὶ, σφοδροῦ καὶ πληκτικοῦ τοῦ λόγου δεῖ: προσηνείᾳ γὰρ οὐκ ἂν ἀχθείη ὁ τοιοῦτος. Ἔλεγχε οὖν αὐτούς. Ἐνταῦθα οὐ τοὺς ἀλλοτρίους φησὶν, ἀλλὰ τοὺς οἰκείους. Ἀποτόμως. Βαθυτέραν, φησὶ, δίδου τὴν πληγήν. Οὐ γὰρ πᾶσιν ἑνὶ τρόπῳ προσενεκτέον, ἀλλὰ διαφόρως καὶ ποικίλως, καὶ πρὸς τὰ ὑποκείμενα. Οὐδαμοῦ παρακαλεῖ ἐνταῦθα. Ὥσπερ γὰρ ὁ τὸν ἐπιεικῆ καὶ εὐγενῆ πλήττων ἀναιρεῖ καὶ ἀπόλλυσιν: οὕτως ὁ τὸν δεόμενον σφοδρότητος κολακεύων διαφθείρει καὶ οὐκ ἀφίησι διαναστῆναι. Ἵνα ὑγιαίνωσι, φησὶν, ἐν τῇ πίστει. Ἄρα τοῦτο ὑγεία, τὸ μηδὲν νόθον μηδὲ ἀλλότριον ἐπεισάγειν. Εἰ δὲ οἱ βρώματα παρατηροῦντες οὐχ ὑγιαίνουσιν, ἀλλὰ νοσοῦσι καὶ ἀσθενοῦσι (Τοὺς γὰρ ἀσθενοῦντας, φησὶ, τῇ πίστει προσλαμβάνεσθε μὴ εἰς διακρίσεις διαλογισμῶν): τί ἂν εἴποι τις περὶ τῶν τὰ αὐτὰ νηστευόντων αὐτοῖς, περὶ τῶν σαββατιζόντων, περὶ τῶν εἰς τόπους ἀπερχομένων ἐκείνοις ἀφιερωμένους; τὸν ἐν Δάφνῃ λέγω, τὸ τῆς Ματρώνης λεγόμενον σπήλαιον, τὸν ἐν Κιλικίᾳ τόπον τὸν τοῦ Κρόνου λεγόμενον. Πῶς δὲ οὗτοι ὑγιαίνουσι; Διὸ χρὴ σφοδροτέρας αὐτοῖς τῆς πληγῆς. Διὰ τί οὖν ἐπὶ Ῥωμαίων τὸ αὐτὸ οὐ ποιεῖ; Ὅτι οὐ τοιαῦτα τὰ ἤθη ἐκείνων, ἀλλ' εὐγενέστεροι ἐτύγχανον. Μὴ προσέχοντες, φησὶν, Ἰουδαϊκοῖς μύθοις. Διπλῇ μῦθος τὰ Ἰουδαϊκὰ, καὶ ὅτι παραποίησις, καὶ ὅτι παρὰ καιρὸν τὸ πρᾶγμα: λοιπὸν γὰρ μῦθος γίνεται. Ὅταν γὰρ μὴ δεῖ αὐτὸ γενέσθαι, καὶ γενόμενον βλάπτῃ, μῦθός ἐστιν, ὥσπερ ἄχρηστόν ἐστιν. Ὥσπερ οὖν ἐκείνοις οὐ δεῖ πείθεσθαι, οὕτως οὐδὲ τούτοις: οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ὑγιαίνειν. Εἰ γὰρ πιστεύεις τῇ πίστει, τί ἕτερα ἐπεισάγεις, ὡς οὐκ ἀρκούσης τῆς πίστεως δικαιῶσαι; τί καταδουλοῖς ἑαυτὸν καὶ ὑποβάλλεις τῷ νόμῳ; οὐ θαῤῥεῖς τῷ πράγματι; Τοῦτο νοσοῦντός ἐστι καὶ ἀπιστοῦντος: πιστῆς γὰρ διανοίας μὴ ἀμφιβάλλειν: ἀμφιβάλλει δὲ ὁ τοιοῦτος. Πάντα μὲν, φησὶ, καθαρὰ τοῖς καθαροῖς. Ὁρᾷς ὅτι πρός τί ἐστι τὸ εἰρημένον; Τοῖς δὲ μεμιαμμένοις, φησὶ, καὶ ἀπίστοις οὐδὲν καθαρόν. γʹ. Οὐκ ἄρα παρὰ τὴν οἰκείαν φύσιν καθαρὰ ἢ ἀκάθαρτα, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τὴν προαίρεσιν τῶν μεταλαμβανόντων. Ἀλλὰ μεμίανται αὐτῶν, φησὶ, καὶ ὁ νοῦς καὶ ἡ συνείδησις. Θεὸν ὁμολογοῦσιν εἰδέναι, τοῖς δὲ ἔργοις ἀρνοῦνται, βδελυκτοὶ ὄντες καὶ ἀπειθεῖς καὶ πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἀδόκιμοι. Οὐκοῦν καὶ ὁ ὗς καθαρόν: τί οὖν ὡς ἀκάθαρτον ἀπηγόρευται; Οὐ τῇ φύσει ἀκάθαρτον ἦν: πάντα γὰρ καθαρά: ἐπεὶ οὐδὲν ἰχθύος ἀκαθαρτότερον, ὅπου γε καὶ ἀνθρωπίνων ἀπογεύεται σωμάτων: ἀλλ' ἐπετέτραπτο, καὶ καθαρὸν εἶναι ἐδόκει. Πάλιν οὐδὲν ὄρνιθος ἀκαθαρτότερον: σκώληκας γὰρ ἐσθίει: οὐδὲν ἐλάφου: καὶ γὰρ καὶ παρὰ τοῦτό φασιν αὐτὸν καλεῖσθαι ἔλαφον διὰ τὸ ὄφεις ἐσθίειν: ἀλλὰ πάντα ταῦτα ἠσθίετο. Τίνος οὖν ἕνεκεν τὸν ὗν καὶ ἕτερά τινα τοιαῦτα ἀπηγόρευσεν; Οὐχ ὡς ἀκάθαρτα, ἀλλὰ τὸ πλέον τῆς τρυφῆς περικόπτων. Ἀλλ' εἰ μὲν τοῦτο εἶπεν, οὐκ ἂν ἔπεισε: νῦν δὲ τῷ φόβῳ τῆς ἀκαθαρσίας αὐτοὺς κατέσχε. Τί γὰρ, εἰπέ μοι, οἴνου ἀκαθαρτότερον, εἰ ταῦτα ἐξετάζειν χρή; τί δὲ ὕδατος, εἰπέ μοι, ᾧ μάλιστα ἐκαθαίροντο; νεκρῶν οὐχ ἥπτοντο, καὶ νεκρῷ καθηγνίζοντο: τὸ γὰρ σφαζόμενον νεκρὸν, καὶ τούτῳ ἐκαθαίροντο. Οὕτω παίδων ἦν ἡ διδασκαλία. Σκόπει δέ: Ὁ οἶνος οὐχὶ ἀπὸ κόπρου τὴν σύστασιν ἔχει; ὥσπερ γὰρ ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ἕλκει ἡ ἄμπελος τὴν νοτίδα, οὕτω καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς κόπρου τῆς παρακειμένης. Καὶ ὅλως, εἰ βουλοίμεθα ἀκριβολογεῖσθαι, πάντα ἀκάθαρτα. Ἀλλ' οὐδὲν, εἰ βουλοίμεθα μὴ ἀκριβολογεῖσθαι, ἀκάθαρτον, ἀλλὰ πάντα καθαρά: οὐδὲν ὁ Θεὸς ἀκάθαρτον ἐποίησεν: οὐδὲν γὰρ ἀκάθαρτον, εἰ μὴ ἡ ἁμαρτία μόνη: ψυχῆς γὰρ ἅπτεται, καὶ ταύτην ῥυποῖ. Τοῦτο δὲ πρόληψίς ἐστιν ἀνθρωπίνη. Τοῖς δὲ μεμιαμμένοις, φησὶ, καὶ ἀπίστοις οὐδὲν καθαρὸν, ἀλλὰ μεμίανται αὐτῶν καὶ ὁ νοῦς καὶ ἡ συνείδησις. Πῶς γὰρ ἐν τοῖς καθαροῖς ἀκάθαρτον ἂν εἴης; Ὁ ψυχὴν ἔχων ἀσθενῆ, πάντα ῥυποῖ. Εἰ δὲ ἐνσπαρῇ τοιοῦτος λογισμὸς τὸ καθαρὸν καὶ τὸ ἀκάθαρτον ζητῶν, οὐδενὸς ἅψεται: οὐδὲ γὰρ ταῦτα καθαρὰ, ἰχθῦς λέγω, καὶ τὰ ἄλλα κατὰ τὸν αὐτῶν λογισμὸν (Μεμίανται αὐτῶν, φησὶ, καὶ ὁ νοῦς καὶ ἡ συνείδησις), ἀλλὰ πάντα μιαρά. Ἀλλ' οὐκ εἶπεν οὕτως, ἀλλὰ τί; Περιέτρεψεν εἰς αὐτοὺς τὸ πᾶν. Οὐδὲν γὰρ ἀκάθαρτον, φησὶν, ἀλλ' αὐτοὶ, καὶ ὁ νοῦς καὶ ἡ συνείδησις αὐτῶν: τούτων οὐδέν ἐστιν ἀκαθαρτότερον. Θεὸν ὁμολογοῦσιν εἰδέναι, τοῖς δὲ ἔργοις ἀρνοῦνται, βδελυκτοὶ ὄντες καὶ ἀπειθεῖς, καὶ πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἀδόκιμοι. Σὺ δὲ λάλει ἃ πρέπει τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ. Τοῦτό ἐστιν ἀκαθαρσία: αὐτοί εἰσιν ἀκάθαρτοι: ἀλλὰ μὴ τούτων ἕνεκεν σιγήσῃς. Κἂν μὴ δέχωνται, φησὶ, σὺ τὰ σαυτοῦ πράττε: κἂν μὴ πείθωνται, σὺ παραίνει καὶ συμβούλευε. Ἐνταῦθα πλέον αὐτοὺς διαβάλλει. Καὶ γὰρ οἱ μαινόμενοι οὐδὲν νομίζουσιν ἑστηκέναι: ἀλλ' οὐ παρὰ τὰ ὁρώμενα τοῦτο γίνεται, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τοὺς ὁρῶντας ὀφθαλμούς. Ἐπειδὴ ἄστατοί εἰσι καὶ ἰλιγγιῶντες, νομίζουσι περιστρέφεσθαι αὐτοῖς τὴν γῆν: ἀλλ' οὐ περιστρέφεται, ἀλλ' ἕστηκε παγία: τοῦ γὰρ πάθους αὐτῶν ἡ ἀπόνοια, οὐ τοῦ στοιχείου τὸ πάθος. Οὕτω καὶ ἐνταῦθα: ὅταν ψυχὴ ἀκάθαρτος ᾖ, πάντα ἀκάθαρτα νομίζει. Ἄρα οὖν οὐ τὸ παρατηρεῖσθαι καθαρότητος, ἀλλὰ καθαρότητος τὸ πάντων κατατολμᾷν: ὁ γὰρ φύσει καθαρὸς, πάντων κατατολμᾷ, οἱ δὲ ἐῤῥυπωμένοι, οὐδενός. Τοῦτο καὶ πρὸς Μαρκίωνα ἔστιν εἰπεῖν. Ὁρᾷς ὅτι καθαρότητος τεκμήριον τίθεται τὸ παντὸς ῥύπου ἀνώτερον εἶναι, τὸ δὲ μηδενὸς ἅπτεσθαι, ἀκαθαρσίας; Οὕτω καὶ ἐπὶ Θεοῦ: ὅτι σάρκα ἀνέλαβε, τοῦτο καθαρότητος: εἰ δεδοικὼς δὲ οὐκ ἀνέλαβε, ῥύπου. Ὁ τὰ δοκοῦντα εἶναι ἀκάθαρτα μὴ ἐσθίων, οὗτός ἐστιν ἀκάθαρτος καὶ ἀσθενής: ὁ δὲ ἐσθίων, οὐκέτι. Μὴ καθαροὺς τοίνυν καλῶμεν τοὺς τοιούτους: οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀκάθαρτοι: ὁ δὲ πάντων κατατολμῶν, καθαρός. Ταύτην τὴν εὐλάβειαν ἐπὶ τῶν ῥυπούντων τὴν ψυχὴν ἐπιδείκνυσθαι χρή: ἐκεῖνο γὰρ ἀκαθαρσία, ἐκεῖνο ῥύπος: τοῦτο δὲ οὐδὲν τούτων. Ἐπεὶ καὶ οἱ στόμα ἔχοντες διεφθαρμένον νομίζουσι τὰ προσφερόμενα ἀκάθαρτα εἶναι, τοῦτο δὲ τοῦ πάθους ἐστί. Χρὴ τοίνυν τῶν καθαρῶν σφόδρα εἰδέναι καὶ τῶν ἀκαθάρτων τὴν φύσιν. Τί οὖν ἐστιν ἀκάθαρτον; Ἁμαρτία, κακία, πλεονεξία, πονηρία. Λούσασθε, φησὶ, καθαροὶ γίνεσθε, ἀφέλετε τὰς πονηρίας ὑμῶν ἀπὸ τῶν ψυχῶν ὑμῶν. Καρδίαν καθαρὰν κτίσον ἐν ἐμοὶ, ὁ Θεός. Ἐξέλθετε ἐκ μέσου αὐτῶν, καὶ ἀφορίσθητε, φησὶ, καὶ ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε: ἐπεὶ καὶ αἱ παρατηρήσεις ἐκεῖναι σύμβολα ἦσαν καθαρσιῶν. Νεκροῦ, φησὶ, μὴ ἅψῃ. Τοιοῦτον γὰρ ἡ ἁμαρτία, νεκρὸν καὶ ὀδωδός. Ὁ λεπρὸς, φησὶν, ἀκάθαρτός ἐστι. Καὶ γὰρ ἡ ἁμαρτία ποικίλον καὶ πολυειδές. Καὶ ὅτι τοῦτο αἰνίττεται, ἐκ τῶν ἑξῆς δῆλον. Ἐὰν γὰρ ᾖ διαπαντὸς ἡ λέπρα καὶ καθ' ὅλου τοῦ σώματος, καθαρός ἐστιν: ἐὰν δὲ ἐν μέρει, οὐκέτι. Ὁρᾷς ὅτι τὸ ποικίλον καὶ ἐνηλλαγμένον ἐστὶ τὸ ἀκάθαρτον; Πάλιν ὁ γονοῤῥυὴς ἀκάθαρτος ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ. Λόγισαι τὸν γονοῤῥυῆ, τὸν τὰ σπέρματα ἀποβάλλοντα. Ὁ μὴ περιτμηθεὶς πάλιν ἀκάθαρτος. Ὁρᾷς πῶς οὐκ ἔστι ταῦτα ἀλληγορία, ἀλλὰ τύποι; Ὁ μὴ περιελὼν, φησὶ, τῆς ψυχῆς τὴν κακίαν. Ὁ ἐργαζόμενος ἐν τῷ σαββάτῳ, λιθάζεται: τουτέστιν, ὁ μὴ διαπαντὸς ἀνακείμενος τῷ Θεῷ, οὗτος ἀπόλλυται. Εἴδετε πόσοι τρόποι ἀκαθαρσιῶν; Ἡ ἀπὸ λέχους, φησὶν, ἀκάθαρτός ἐστι. Διὰ τί, εἰπέ μοι; Οὐχὶ σπόρον καὶ γέννησιν αὐτὸς ἐποίησε; τίνος οὖν ἕνεκεν ἀκάθαρτος ἡ γυνή; εἰ μὴ ἕτερόν τι ᾐνίττετο. Τί δὲ τοῦτό ἐστιν; Εὐλάβειαν ἐνέτικτε τῇ ψυχῇ, τῆς πορνείας ἀπήγαγε πόῤῥω. Εἰ γὰρ ἡ τεκοῦσα ἀκάθαρτος, πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ πορνεύουσα: εἰ τὸ τῇ γυναικὶ τῇ ἑαυτοῦ πλησιάζειν οὐ σφόδρα καθαρὸν, τὸ ἀλλοτρίᾳ μίγνυσθαι πολλῷ μᾶλλον. Ὁ ἀπὸ κήδους, φησὶν, ἀκάθαρτος: πολλῷ μᾶλλον ὁ ἀπὸ φόνου καὶ πολέμου. Καὶ πολλοὺς ἂν εὕροι τις τρόπους ἀκαθαρσιῶν, εἴ γε δεῖ πάντας ἀναλέγεσθαι. Ἀλλ' οὐ νῦν ταῦτα ἀπαιτούμεθα, ἀλλὰ μετέστη εἰς τὴν ψυχὴν τὸ πᾶν. Τὰ γὰρ σωματικὰ ἐγγυτέρω ἡμῶν: διὰ τοῦτο ἀπὸ τούτου ἐνήγαγεν: ἀλλ' οὐ νῦν: οὐ γὰρ ἔδει παρακαθέζεσθαι τοῖς τύποις, οὐδὲ προσεδρεύειν ταῖς σκιαῖς, ἀλλὰ τῆς ἀληθείας ἔχεσθαι, καὶ ταύτης ἀντιλαμβάνεσθαι. Ἀκάθαρτον ἡ ἁμαρτία: ταύτην φεύγωμεν, ταύτης ἀπεχώμεθα: Ἐὰν προσέλθῃς, φησὶ πρὸς αὐτὴν, δέξεταί σε. Οὐδὲν πλεονεξίας ἀκαθαρτότερον. Πόθεν τοῦτο δῆλον; Ἀπ' αὐτῶν τῶν πραγμάτων. Τί γὰρ οὐ μιαίνει; χεῖρας, ψυχὴν, αὐτὴν τὴν οἰκίαν, ἔνθα ἀπόκειται τὰ ἁρπαζόμενα. Πρὸς Ἰουδαίους μὲν οὖν οὐδὲν τοῦτο εἶναι δοκεῖ. Καίτοι ὀστᾶ ἐβάστασεν ὁ Μωϋσῆς τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ, καὶ ὁ Σαμψὼν ἀπὸ σιαγόνος ὄνου ἔπιε, καὶ ἀπὸ λέοντος μέλι ἔφαγε, καὶ Ἠλίας ἀπὸ κοράκων ἐτρέφετο, καὶ παρὰ γυναικὸς χήρας. Τί δὲ, εἰπέ μοι, εἰ τούτων ἕνεκεν ἀκριβολογεῖσθαι χρὴ, τὰ δέρματα τῶν βιβλίων αὐτῶν οὐ πάντων ἦν ἐναγέστερα; καὶ γὰρ ἀπὸ νεκρῶν ζώων ἐστίν. Οὐχὶ ὁ πόρνος τοίνυν ἀκάθαρτος μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἕτεροι τούτου μᾶλλον, καὶ ὁ μοιχὸς ἀκάθαρτος: ἀκάθαρτος δὲ καὶ οὗτος κἀκεῖνος, οὐ διὰ τὴν μίξιν: ἐπεὶ κατὰ τοῦτον τὸν λόγον καὶ ὁ γυναικὶ ἰδίᾳ πλησιάζων, ἀκάθαρτος: ἀλλὰ διὰ τὴν ἀδικίαν καὶ τὴν πλεονεξίαν, ὅτι τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἐπλεονέκτησεν ἐν τοῖς ἀναγκαιοτάτοις. Ὁρᾷς ὅτι ἡ κακία ἀκάθαρτον; Καὶ ὁ μὲν δύο γυναῖκας ἔχων οὐκ ἦν ἀκάθαρτος: καὶ πολλὰς ἔχων ὁ Δαυῒδ οὐκ ἦν ἀκάθαρτος: ἐπειδὴ δὲ μίαν ἔσχε παρανόμως, ἀκάθαρτος γέγονε. Διὰ τί; Ὅτι ἠδίκησεν, ὅτι ἐπλεονέκτησε. Καὶ ὁ πόρνος δὲ οὐ διὰ τοῦτο ἀκάθαρτος διὰ τὴν μίξιν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸν τρόπον, ὅτι ἀδικεῖ τὸ γύναιον, καὶ ἀλλήλους ἀδικοῦσι τὴν γυναῖκα ποιοῦντες κοινὴν, καὶ τοὺς τῆς φύσεως ἀνατρέποντες νόμους: ἑνὸς γὰρ αὐτὴν ἔδει εἶναι. Ἄρσεν γὰρ, φησὶ, καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτούς: καὶ εἶπεν, Ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν: οὐχ οἱ πολλοὶ, ἀλλ' Οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν. Καὶ ἐνταῦθα τοίνυν ἀδικία ἐστὶ, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο πονηρὸν τὸ πρᾶγμα. Ὁ θυμὸς πάλιν ὅταν ὑπερβῇ τὰ μέτρα, ἀκάθαρτον ποιεῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον, οὐ διὰ τὴν ὀργὴν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸν τρόπον: ἐπεὶ καὶ τοῦτο πρόσκειται, Ὁ ὀργιζόμενος, οὐχ ἁπλῶς, ἀλλὰ, εἰκῆ. Ὥστε πανταχοῦ τὸ τοῦ πλείονος ἐφίεσθαι, ἀκάθαρτον: ἀπὸ γὰρ ἀπληστίας καὶ τοῦ ἀκορέστου τὸ πρᾶγμα τίκτεται. Νήφωμεν τοίνυν, παρακαλῶ, καθαροὶ γενώμεθα τὴν ἀληθῆ καθαρότητα, ἵνα τὸν Θεὸν ἰδεῖν καταξιωθῶμεν, ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ Κυρίῳ ἡμῶν, μεθ' οὗ τῷ Πατρὶ ἅμα τῷ ἁγίῳ Πνεύματι δόξα, κράτος, τιμὴ, νῦν καὶ ἀεὶ, καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων. Ἀμήν.