12. But now, that as bearing with the infirmity of men he did this, let us hear what follows: “For though I be free from all men, yet have I made myself servant unto all, that I might gain the more. To them that are under the law, I became as under the law, that I might gain them that are under the law; to them that are without law, as without law, (being not without law to God, but under the law to Christ,) that I might gain them that are without law.”30 1 Cor. ix. 19–21 Which thing he did, not with craftiness of simulation, but with mercy of compassion with others; that is, not as if to feign himself a Jew, as some have thought, in that he observed at Jerusalem the things prescribed by the old law.31 S. Jerome in Ep. inter Augustinianas, 75, n. 9–11. For he did this in accordance with his free and openly declared sentence, in which he says, “Is any called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised.” That is, let him not so live, as though he had become uncircumcised, and covered that which he had laid bare: as in another place he saith, “Thy circumcision is become uncircumcision.”32 Rom. ii. 25 It was in accordance then with this his sentence, in which he saith, “Is any called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised;”33 1 Cor. vii. 18 that he did those things, in which, by persons not understanding and not enough attending, he has been accounted to have feigned. For he was a Jew, and was called being circumcised; therefore he would not become uncircumcised; that is, would not so live as if he had not been circumcised. For this he now had in his power to do. And “under” the law, indeed, he was not as they who servilely wrought it; but yet “in” the law of God and of Christ. For that law was not one, and the law of God another, as accursed Manicheans are wont to say. Otherwise, if when he did those things he is to be accounted to have feigned, then he feigned himself also a pagan, and sacrificed to idols, because he says that he became to those without law, as without law. By whom, doubtless, he would have us to understand no other than Gentiles whom we call Pagans. It is one thing therefore to be under the law, another in the law, another without law. “Under the law,” the carnal Jews; “in the law,” spiritual men, both Jews and Christians; (whence the former kept that custom of their fathers, but did not impose unwonted burdens upon the believing Gentiles; and therefore they also were circumcised;) but “without law,” are the Gentiles which have not yet believed, to whom yet the Apostle testifieth himself to have become like, through sympathy of a merciful heart, not simulation of a changeable exterior; that is, that he might in that way succor carnal Jew or Pagan, in which way himself, if he were that, would have wished to be succored: bearing, to wit, their infirmity, in likeness of compassion, not deceiving in fiction of lying; as he straightway goes on, and says, “I became to the weak as weak, that I might gain the weak.”34 1 Cor. ix. 22 For it was from this point that he was speaking, in saying all those other things. As then, that he became to the weak as weak, was no lie; so all those other things above rehearsed. For what doth he mean his weakness towards the weak to have been, but that of suffering with them, insomuch that, lest he should appear to be a seller of the Gospel, and by falling into an ill suspicion with ignorant men, should hinder the course of God’s word, he would not accept what by warrant of the Lord was his due? Which if he were willing to accept, he would not in any wise lie, because it was truly due to him; and for that he would not, he did not in any wise lie. For he did not say, it was not due; but he showed it to be due, and that being due he had not used it, and professed that he would not at all use it, in that very thing becoming weak; namely, in that he would not use his power; being, to wit, with so merciful affection endued, that he thought in what way he should wish to be dealt withal, if himself also were made so weak, that possibly, if he should see them by whom the Gospel was preached to him, accepting their charges, he might think it a bringing of wares to market, and hold them in suspicion accordingly.
12. In hac re, ut in aliis, Paulus ex compassione se infirmis accommodat. Quomodo sine fictione et fallacia factus est quasi sub lege et quasi sine lege. Timet ne Evangelium, si ex eo vivat, venale putetur ab infirmis. Jam vero quia infirmitati hominum compatiens id faciebat, audiamus sequentia: Cum enim liber sim, inquit, ex omnibus, omnium me servum feci, ut plures lucrifacerem: iis qui sub Lege sunt, quasi sub Lege, cum non sim ipse sub Lege, ut eos qui sub Lege erant lucrifacerem; iis qui sine Lege sunt, quasi sine Lege, cum sine lege Dei non sim, sed sim in lege Christi, ut lucrifacerem eos qui sine Lege sunt. Quod non simulandi versutia faciebat, sed compatiendi misericordia; id est, non quasi ut se fingeret Judaeum, sicut nonnulli putaverunt, quia legitima vetera Jerosolymis observavit . Fecit enim hoc secundum liberam et manifestam sententiam suam, in qua dicit, Circumcisus quis vocatus est? non adducat praeputium ; id est, non sic vivat, quasi praeputium adduxerit, et id quod nudaverat texerit: sicut alio loco dicit, Circumcisio tua praeputium facta est (Rom. II, 25). Secundum hanc ergo sententiam suam, qua dicit, Circumcisus quis vocatus est? non adducat praeputium. In praeputio quis vocatus est? non circumcidatur (I Cor. VII, 18); fecit illa quae non intelligentibus et parum attendentibus finxisse putatus est; Judaeus enim erat et circumcisus vocatus; noluit adducere praeputium, 0558 id est, noluit ita vivere ac si circumcisus non esset. Hoc enim jam in potestate habebat. Et sub Lege quidem non erat sicut illi qui eam serviliter operabantur; sed tamen in lege Dei et Christi. Non enim alia lex erat illa et alia lex Dei, sicut perditi Manichaei solent dicere. Alioquin si cum illa fecit, finxisse putandus est; finxit et paganum et sacrificavit idolis, quia dicit factum se fuisse iis qui sine Lege sunt quasi sine Lege. Quos utique non nisi Gentiles, quos Paganos dicimus, vult intelligi. Aliud est ergo esse sub Lege, aliud in Lege, aliud sine Lege. Sub Lege carnales Judaei: in Lege spirituales et Judaei et Christiani; unde illi servaverunt morem illum patrium, sed onera insolita credentibus Gentibus non imposuerunt; et ideo et illi circumcisi sunt: sine Lege autem Gentes quae nondum crediderunt, quibus tamen se Apostolus congruisse testatur per misericordem compassionem, non per versipellem simulationem; id est, ut eo modo subveniret carnali Judaeo vel Pagano, quo modo sibi ipse, si hoc esset, subveniri voluisset: portans utique eorum infirmitatem in compassionis similitudine, non fallens in mendacii fictione; sicut continuo sequitur, et dicit, Factus sum infirmis infirmus, ut infirmos lucrifacerem (I Cor. IX, 1-22). Hinc enim loquebatur, ut etiam omnia illa diceret. Sicut ergo quod factus est infirmis infirmus, non erat mendacium; sic et caetera illa superius. Quam enim dicit infirmitatem suam erga infirmos fuisse, nisi compatiendi eis, in tantum ut, ne videretur venditor Evangelii, et verbi Dei cursum apud imperitos in malam suspicionem decidens impediret, nollet accipere quod jure dominico debebatur? Quod si vellet, non utique mentiretur, quia vere debebatur: et, quia noluit, non utique mentitus est. Neque enim dixit non sibi deberi: sed deberi ostendit, et debito se usum non esse, nec omnino uti velle professus est, eo ipso factus infirmus, quo potestate sua uti noluit; tam misericordi scilicet indutus affectu, ut cogitaret quemadmodum secum agi vellet, si et ipse ita infirmaretur, ut posset de illis per quos sibi Evangelium praedicaretur, si eos videret sumptus accipere, quasi mercimoniorum nundinas suspicari.