Colossians iii. 5–7
“Mortify your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry; for which things’ sake, cometh the wrath of God upon the sons of disobedience; in the which ye also walked aforetime, when ye lived in these things.”
I know that many are offended by the foregoing discourse, but what can I do? ye heard what the Master enjoined. Am I to blame? what shall I do? See ye not the creditors, when debtors are obstinate, how they wear143 [This very natural inadvertence in free speaking is duly changed, by the group of mss. which make so many changes, into “how they put collars on them.” These wooden collars were a disgrace, like the stocks.—J.A.B.] collars? Heard ye what Paul proclaimed today? “Mortify,” he saith, “your members which are upon the earth; fornication, uncleanness, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry.” What is worse than such a covetousness? This is worse than any desire. This is still more grievous than what I was speaking of, the madness, and the silly weakness about silver. “And covetousness,” he saith, “which is idolatry.” See in what the evil ends. Do not, I pray, take what I said amiss, for not by my own good-will, nor without reason, would I have enemies; but I was wishful ye should attain to such virtue, as that I might hear of you the things I ought.144 Or perhaps, “I could wish…that I might hear from you what is right.” Gr. παρ᾽ ὑμῶν. So that I said it not for authority’s sake, nor of imperiousness,145 ἀξιώματος, wish to maintain dignity. but out of pain and of sorrow. Forgive me, forgive! I have no wish to violate decency by discoursing upon such subjects, but I am compelled to it.
Not for the sake of the sorrows of the poor do I say these things, but for your salvation; for they will perish, will perish, that have not fed Christ. For what, if thou dost feed some poor man? still so long as thou livest so voluptuously and luxuriously, all is to no purpose. For what is required is, not the giving much, but not too little for the property thou hast; for this is but playing at it.
“Mortify therefore your members,” he saith, “which are upon the earth.” What sayest thou? Was it not thou that saidst, “Ye are buried; ye are buried together with Him; ye are circumcised: we have put off the body of the sins of the flesh” (c. ii. 11, 12; Rom. vi. 4.); how then again sayest thou, “Mortify”?146 i.e. put to death. Art thou sporting? Dost thou thus discourse, as though those things were in us? There is no contradiction; but like as if one, who has clean scoured a statue that was filthy, or rather who has recast it, and displayed it bright afresh,147 [The word is ἄνωθεν, as in John iii. 3, 7, and here necessarily means anew or afresh,—a sense so rare as to justify calling attention to it.—J.A.B.] should say that the rust was eaten off and destroyed, and yet should again recommend diligence in clearing away the rust, he doth not contradict himself, for it is not that rust which he scoured off that he recommends should be cleared away, but that which grew afterwards; so it is not that former putting to death he speaks of, nor those fornications, but those which do afterwards grow.
He said that this is not our life, but another, that which is in heaven. Tell me now. When he said, Mortify your members that are upon the earth, is then the earth also accused? or does he speak of the things upon the earth as themselves sins?148 [This is a passing allusion to the Manichæans, who held that matter is necessarily the seat of evil, and might try to interpret the apostle as here accusing the earth of being evil. The passage has been expanded in the often above mentioned group of documents, and so in the editions before Field, so as to be fuller and more perspicuous, thus: “But lo! say the heretics, Paul accuseth the creation; for he said before, ‘Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are upon the earth;’ again he saith, ‘Mortify your members which are upon the earth.’ But the words ‘ upon earth’ are here expressive of sin, not an accusing of creation. For it is thus he calls sins themselves, things upon earth, either from their being wrought by earthly thoughts and upon earth, or from their showing sinners to be earthly.”—J.A.B.]
“Fornication, uncleanness,” he saith. He has passed over the actions which it is not becoming even to mention, and by “uncleanness” has expressed all together.
“Passion,” he said, “evil desire.”
Lo! he has expressed the whole in the class. For envy, anger, sorrow, all are “evil desire.”
“And covetousness,” he saith, “which is idolatry. For which things’ sake cometh the wrath of God upon the sons of disobedience.”
By many things he had been withdrawing them; by the benefits which are already given, by the evils to come from which we had been delivered, being who, and wherefore; and all those considerations, as, for instance, who we were, and in what circumstances, and that we were delivered therefrom, how, and in what manner, and on what terms. These were enough to turn one away, but this one is of greater force than all; unpleasant indeed to speak of, not however to disservice, but even serviceable. “For which things’ sake cometh,” he saith, “the wrath of God upon the sons of disobedience.” He said not, “upon you,” but, “upon the sons of disobedience.”
“In the which ye also walked aforetime, when ye lived in them.” In order to shame them, he saith, “when ye lived in them,” and implying praise, as now no more so living: at that time they might.
Ver. 8. “But now put ye also away all these.”
He speaks always both universally and particularly; but this is from earnestness.
Ver. 8, 9. “Anger, wrath, malice, railing, shameful speaking out of your mouth. Lie not one to another.”
“Shameful speaking,” he saith, “out of your mouth,” clearly intimating that it pollutes it.
Ver. 9, 10. “Seeing that ye have put off the old man with his doings, and have put on the new man, which is being renewed unto knowledge after the image of Him that created him.”
It is worth enquiring here, what can be the reason why he calls the corrupt life, “members,” and “man,” and “body,” and again the virtuous life, the same. And if “the man” means “sins,” how is it that he saith, “with his doings”? For once he said, “the old man,” showing that this is not man, but the other. The moral choice doth rather determine one than the substance, and is rather “man” than the other. For his substance casteth him not into hell, nor leadeth him into the kingdom, but men themselves: and we neither love nor hate any one so far as he is man, but so far as he is such or such a man. If then the substance be the body, and in either sort cannot be accountable, how doth he say that it is evil?149 As the Manichees interpreted his words. But what is that he saith, “with his doings”? He means the choice, with the acts. And he calleth him “old,” on purpose to show his deformity, and hideousness, and imbecility; and “new,” as if to say, Do not expect that it will be with this one even as with the other, but the reverse: for ever as he farther advances, he hasteneth not on to old age, but to a youthfulness greater than the preceding. For when he hath received a fuller knowledge, he is both counted worthy of greater things, and is in more perfect maturity, in higher vigor; and this, not from youthfulness alone, but from that “likeness” also, “after” which he is. Lo! the best life is styled a creation, after the image of Christ: for this is the meaning of, “after the image of Him that created him,” for Christ too came not finally to150 οὐ πρὸς γῆρας ἐτελεύτησεν, Lat. “Nec senex mortuus est” (died not old). But the other sense seems more suitable. In either sense it is opposed to the view ascribed to Byzantine artists. See Rio’s Poésie Chrétienne. old age, but was so beautiful as it is not even possible to tell.
Ver. 11. “Where there cannot be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bondman, freeman: but Christ is all, and in all.”
Lo! here is a third encomium of this “man.” With him, there is no difference admitted either of nation, or of rank, or of ancestry, seeing he hath nothing of externals, nor needeth them; for all external things are such as these, “circumcision, and uncircumcision, bondman, freeman, Greek,” that is, proselyte, “and Jew,” from his ancestors. If thou have only this “man,” thou wilt obtain the same things with the others that have him.
“But Christ,” he saith, “is all, and in all”: Christ will be all things to you, both rank, and descent, “and” Himself “in you all.” Or he says another thing, to wit, that ye all are become one Christ, being His body.
Ver. 12. “Put on, therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved.”
He shows the easiness of virtue, so that they might both possess it continually, and use it as the greatest ornament. The exhortation is accompanied also with praise, for then its force is greatest. For they had been before151 ἐγένοντο, i.e. he had before called them holy, c. l. v. 2. holy, but not elect; but now both “elect, and holy, and beloved.”
“A heart of compassion.” He said not “mercy,” but with greater emphasis used the two words. And he said not, that it should be as towards brethren, but, as fathers towards children. For tell me not that he sinned, therefore he said “a heart.” And he said not “compassion,” lest he should place them152 ἐκείνους, “the objects.” in light estimation, but “a heart of compassion, kindness, humility, meekness, longsuffering; forbearing one another, and forgiving each other, if any man have a complaint against any: even as Christ forgave you, so also do ye.”
Again, he speaks after the class,153 κατ᾽ εἶδος, from genus to species, as remarked above, on v. 7. and he always does it; for from kindness comes humbleness of mind, and from this, longsuffering. “Forbearing,” he saith, “one another,” that is, passing things over.154 παραπεμπόμενοι, al. παραδέχόμενοι “receiving one another.” And see, how he has shown it to be nothing, by calling it a “complaint,” and saying, “even as Christ forgave you.” Great is the example! and thus he always does; he exhorts them after Christ. “Complaint,” he calls it. In these words indeed he showed it to be a petty matter; but when he has set before us the example, he has persuaded us that even if we had serious charges to bring, we ought to forgive. For the expression, “Even as Christ,” signifies this, and not this only, but also with all the heart; and not this alone, but that they ought even to love. For Christ being brought into the midst, bringeth in all these things, both that even if the matters be great, and even if we have not been the first to injure, even if we be of great, they of small account, even if they are sure to insult us afterwards, we ought to lay down our lives for them, (for the words, “even as,” demand this;) and that not even at death only ought one to stop, but if possible, to go on even after death.
Ver. 14. “And above all these things put on love, which is the bond of perfectness.”
Dost thou see that he saith this? For since it is possible for one who forgives, not to love; yea, he saith, thou must love him too, and he points out a way whereby it becomes possible to forgive. For it is possible for one to be kind, and meek, and humbleminded, and longsuffering, and yet not affectionate. And therefore, he said at the first, “A heart of compassion,” both love and pity. “And above all these things, love, which is the bond of perfectness.” Now what he wishes to say is this; that there is no profit in those things, for all those things fall asunder, except they be done with love; this it is which clenches them all together; whatsoever good thing it be thou mentionest, if love be away, it is nothing, it melts away. And it is as in a ship, even though her rigging be large, yet if there be no girding ropes, it is of no service; and in an house, if there be no tie beams, it is the same; and in a body, though the bones be large, if there be no ligaments, they are of no service. For whatsoever good deeds any may have, all do vanish away, if love be not there. He said not that it is the summit, but what is greater, “the bond”; this is more necessary than the other. For “summit” indeed is an intensity of perfectness, but “bond” is the holding fast together of those things which produce the perfectness; it is, as it were, the root.
Ver. 15. “And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to the which also ye were called in one body; and be ye thankful.”
“The peace of God.” This is that which is fixed and steadfast. If on man’s account indeed thou hast peace, it quickly comes to dissolution, but if on God’s account, never. Although he had spoken of love universally, yet again he comes to the particular. For there is a love too which is immoderate; for instance, when out of much love one makes accusations without reason, and is engaged in contentions, and contracts aversions. Not this, saith he, not this do I desire; not overdoing things,155 [Literally, “not superperfectly,” a singular expression, omitted in all editions before Field, but found in all the mss. he cites.—J.A.B.] but as God made peace with you, so do ye also make it. How made He peace? Of His own will, not having received anything of you. What is this? “Let the peace of God rule156 [Literally, act as umpire, or as judge in the games.—J.A.B.] in your hearts.” If two thoughts are fighting together, set not anger, set not spitefulness to hold the prize, but peace; for instance, suppose one to have been insulted unjustly; of the insult are born two thoughts, the one bidding him to revenge, the other to endure; and these wrestle with one another: if the Peace of God stand forward as umpire, it bestows the prize on that which bids endure, and puts the other to shame. How? by persuading him that God is Peace, that He hath made peace with us. Not without reason he shows the great struggle there is in the matter. Let not anger, he saith, act as umpire, let not contentiousness, let not human peace, for human peace cometh of avenging, of suffering no dreadful ill. But not this do I intend, he saith, but that which He Himself left.
He hath represented an arena within, in the thoughts, and a contest, and a wrestling, and an umpire. Then again, exhortation, “to the which ye were called,” he saith, that is, for the which ye were called. He has reminded them of how many good things peace is the cause; on account of this He called thee, for this He called thee, so as to receive a worthy157 ἀξιόπιστον. Usually “worthy of credit,” but sometimes rather in a secondary sense, “worthy of honor.” prize. For wherefore made He us “one body”? Was it not that she might rule? Was it not that we might have occasion of being at peace? Wherefore are we all one body? and now are we one body? Because of peace we are one body, and because we are one body, we are at peace. But why said he not, “Let the peace of God be victorious,” but “be umpire”? He made her the more honorable. He would not have the evil thought to come to wrestle with her, but to stand below. And the very name “prize” cheered the hearer. For if she have given the prize to the good thought, however impudently the other behave, it is thereafter of no use. And besides, the other being aware that, perform what feats he might, he should not receive the prize; however he might puff, and attempt still more vehement onsets, would desist as laboring without profit. And he well added, “And be ye thankful.” For this is to be thankful, and very effectively,158 This must mean “in a way that has power of prevailing with God,” so to speak, “putting Him to shame, if he do not grant the favor.” Comp. Hebrew vi. 10. to deal with his fellow-servants as God doth with himself, to submit himself to the Master, to obey; to express his gratitude for all things,159 [Compare Chrys.’s famous motto, “Glory to God for all things”.—J.A.B.] even though one insult him, or beat him.
For in truth he that confesses thanks due to God for what he suffers, will not revenge himself on him that has done him wrong, since he at least that takes revenge, acknowledges no gratitude. But let not us follow him (that exacted)160 Sav. [and one ms.] has ὀφείλοντα, “that owed,” which makes no sense; mss. Par. only τὸν τὰ ἑκατὸν; Downes conj. ἀπαιτοῦντα τὰ. the hundred pence, lest we hear, “Thou wicked servant,” for nothing is worse than this ingratitude. So that they who revenge are ungrateful.
But why did he begin his list with fornication? For having said, “Mortify your members which are upon the earth” (c. iii. 5.), he immediately says, “fornication”; and so he does almost everywhere. Because this passion hath the greatest sway. For even when writing his Epistle to the Thessalonians he did the same. (1 Thess. iv. 3.) And what wonder? since to Timothy even he saith, “Keep thyself pure” (1 Tim. v. 22.); and again elsewhere, “Follow after peace with all men, and the sanctification,” without which “no man shall see the Lord.” (Heb. xii. 14.) “Put to death,” he says, “your members.” Ye know of what sort that is which is dead, namely, hated, loathed, dropping to decay. If thou put anything to death, it doth not when dead continue dead, but presently is corrupted, like the body. Extinguish then the heat; and nothing that is dead will continue. He shows one having the same thing in hand, which Christ wrought in the Laver; therefore also he calleth them “members,” as though introducing some champion, thus advancing his discourse to greater emphasis. And he well said, “Which are upon the earth,” for here they continue, and here they are corrupted, far rather than these our members. So that not so truly is the body of the earth, as sin is earthly, for the former indeed appears even beautiful at times, but those members never. And those members lust after all things that are upon the earth. If the eye be such, it seeth not the things in the heavens; if the ear, if the hand, if thou mention any other member whatsoever. The eye seeth bodies, and beauties, and riches; these are the things of earth, with these it is delighted: the ear with soft strains, and harp, and pipe, and filthy talking; these are things which are concerned with earth.
When therefore he has placed his hearers above, near the throne, he then says, “Mortify your members which are upon the earth.” For it is not possible to stand above with these members; for there is nothing there for them to work upon. And this clay is worse than that, for that clay indeed becometh gold, “for this corruptible,” he saith, “must put on incorruption” (1 Cor. xv. 53.), but this clay can never be retempered more. So that these members are rather “upon the earth” than those. Therefore he said not, “of the earth,” but, “which are upon the earth,” for it is possible that these should not be upon the earth. For it is necessary that these161 The sinful passions. should be “upon the earth,” but that those162 The bodily organs. should, is not necessary. For when the ear hears nothing of what is here uttered, but only in the heavens, when the eye sees nothing of what is here, but only what is above, it is not “upon the earth”; when the mouth speaketh nothing of the things here, it is not “upon the earth”; when the hand doeth no evil thing—these are not of things “upon the earth,” but of those in the heavens.
So Christ also saith, “If thy right eye causeth thee to stumble,” that is, if thou lookest unchastely, “cut it out” (Matt. v. 29.), that is, thine evil thought. And he (Paul) seems to me to speak of “fornication, uncleanness, passion, desire” as the same, namely fornication: by means of all these expressions drawing us away from that thing. For in truth this is “a passion”; and like as the body is subject to any affection, either to fever or to wounds, so also is it with this. And he said not Restrain, but “Mortify” (put to death), so that they never rise up more, and “put them away.” That which is dead, we put away; for instance, if there be callosities in the body, their body is dead, and we put it away. Now, if thou cut into that which is quick, it produces pain, but if into that which is dead, we are not even sensible of it. So, in truth, is it with the passions; they make the soul unclean; they make the soul, which is immortal, passible.
How covetousness is said to be idolatry, we have oftentimes explained. For the things which do most of all lord it over the human race, are these, covetousness, and unchasteness, and evil desire. “For which things’ sake cometh,” he saith, “the wrath of God upon the sons of disobedience.” Sons of disobedience, he calls them, to deprive them of excuse, and to show that it was because they would not be obedient, that they were in that condition. “In the which ye also,” he saith, “walked aforetime,” and (afterward) became obedient. He points them out as still in them, and praises them, saying, “But now do ye also put away all these, anger, wrath, malice, railing, shameful speaking.” But against others he advanceth his discourse. Under the head of “passion and railing” he means revilings, just as under “wrath” he means wickedness.163 He means that the word used expresses a natural emotion or act, but the abuse of this is intended; and so it may be necessary to speak evil of one. And in another place, to shame them, he says, “for we are members one of another.” (Eph. iv. 25.) He makes them out to be as it were manufacturers of men; casting away this one, and receiving that. He spoke of a man’s “members” (v. 5.); here he saith, “all.” He spoke of his heart, wrath, mouth, blasphemy, eyes, fornication, covetousness, hands and feet, lying, the understanding itself, and the old mind. One royal form it hath, that, namely, of Christ. They whom he has in view, appear to me rather to be of the Gentiles. For like as earth, being but sand, even though one part be greater, another less, losing its own previous form, doth afterwards become gold; and like as wool, of whatever kind it be, receiveth another aspect, and hides its former one: so truly is it also with the faithful. “Forbearing,” he saith, “one another”; he showeth what is just. Thou forbearest him, and he thee; and so he says in the Epistle to the Galatians, “Bear ye one another’s burdens.” (Gal. vi. 2.) “And be ye thankful,” he saith. For this is what he everywhere especially seeks; the chiefest of good things.
Give we thanks then in all things; whatever may have happened; for this is thankfulness. For to do so in prosperity indeed, is no great thing, for the nature of the circumstances of itself impels one thereto; but when being in extremities we give thanks, then it is admirable. For when, in circumstances under which others blaspheme, and exclaim discontentedly, we give thanks, see how great philosophy is here. First, thou hast rejoiced God; next, thou hast shamed the devil; thirdly, thou hast even made that which hath happened to be nothing; for all at once, thou both givest thanks, and God cuts short the pain, and the devil departs. For if thou have exclaimed discontentedly, he, as having succeeded to his wish, standeth close by thee, and God, as being blasphemed, leaveth thee, and thy calamity is heightened; but if thou have given thanks, he, as gaining nought, departs; and God, as being honored, requites thee with greater honor. And it is not possible, that a man, who giveth thanks for his evils should be sensible of them. For his soul rejoiceth, as doing what is right; forthwith his conscience is bright, it exults in its own commendation; and that soul which is bright, cannot possibly be sad of countenance. But in the other case, along with the misfortune, conscience also assails him with her lash; whilst in this she crowns, and proclaims him.
Nothing is holier than that tongue, which in evils giveth thanks to God; truly in no respect doth it fall short of that of martyrs; both are alike crowned, both this, and they. For over this one also stands the executioner to force it to deny God, by blasphemy; the devil stands over it, torturing it with executioner thoughts, darkening it with despondencies. If then one bear his griefs, and give thanks, he hath gained a crown of martyrdom. For instance, is her little child sick, and doth she give God thanks? this is a crown to her. What torture so bad that despondency is not worse? still it doth not force her to vent forth a bitter word. It dies: again she hath given thanks. She hath become the daughter of Abraham. For if she sacrificed not with her own hand, yet was she pleased with the sacrifice, which is the same; she felt no indignation when the gift was taken away.
Again, is her child sick? She hath made no amulets.164 περίαπτα. See on Stat. Hom. xix. p. 470 and note 4. Perhaps it should be ἐπέδησε, “she hath tied on.” It is counted to her as martyrdom, for she sacrificed her son in her resolve. For what, even though those things are unavailing, and a mere cheat and mockery, still there were nevertheless those who persuaded her that they do avail: and she chose rather to see her child dead, than to put up with idolatry. As then she is a martyr, whether it be in her own case, or in her son’s, that she hath thus acted; or in her husband’s, or in any other’s of her dearest; so is that other one an idolatress. For it is evident that she would have done sacrifice, had it been allowed her to do sacrifice; yea, rather, she hath even now performed the act of sacrifice. For these amulets, though they who make money by them are forever rationalizing about them, and saying, “we call upon God, and do nothing extraordinary,” and the like; and “the old woman is a Christian,” says he, “and one of the faithful”; the thing is idolatry. Art thou one of the faithful? sign the Cross; say, this I have for my only weapon; this for my remedy; and other I know none. Tell me, if a physician should come to one, and, neglecting the remedies belonging to his art, should use incantation, should we call that man a physician? By no means: for we see not the medicines of the healing art; so neither, in this case, do we see those of Christianity.
Other women again tie about them165 i.e. their children, περιάπτουσι. In what he says presently after, he must be referring to the temporal ill effects of immorality. the names of rivers, and venture numberless things of like nature. Lo, I say, and forewarn you all, that if any be detected, I will not spare them again, whether they have made amulet, or incantation, or any other thing of such an art as this. What then, saith one, is the child to die? If he have lived through this means, he did then die, but if he have died without this, he then lived. But now, if thou seest him attaching himself to harlots, thou wishest him buried, and sayest, “why, what good is it for him to live?” but when thou seest him in peril of his salvation, dost thou wish to see him live? Heardest thou not Christ saying, “He that loseth his life, shall find it; and he that findeth it, shall lose it”? (Matt. xvi. 25.) Believest thou these sayings, or do they seem to thee fables? Tell me now, should one say, “Take him away to an idol temple, and he will live”; wouldest thou endure it? No! she replies. Why? “Because,” she saith, “he urges me to commit idolatry; but here, there is no idolatry, but simple incantation:” this is the device of Satan, this is that wiliness of the devil to cloak over the deceit, and to give the deleterious drug in honey. After he found that he could not prevail with thee in the other way,166 i.e. of direct idolatry. he hath gone this way about, to stitched charms, and old wives’ fables; and the Cross indeed is dishonored, and these charms preferred before it. Christ is cast out, and a drunken and silly old woman is brought in. That mystery of ours is trodden under foot, and the imposture of the devil dances.
Wherefore then, saith one, doth not God reprove the aid from such sources? He hath many times reproved, and yet hath not persuaded thee; He now leaveth thee to thine error, for It saith, “God gave them up unto a reprobate mind.” (Rom. i. 28.) These things, moreover, not even a Greek who hath understanding could endure. A certain demagogue in Athens is reported once to have hung these things about him: when a philosopher who was his instructor, on beholding them, rebuked him, expostulated, satirized, made sport of him. For in so wretched a plight are we, as even to believe in these things!
Why, saith one, are there not now those who raise the dead, and perform cures? Yes, then, why, I say: why are there not now those who have a contempt for this present life? Do we serve God for hire? When man’s nature was weaker, when the Faith had to be planted, there were even many such; but now he would not have us to hang upon these signs, but to be ready for death. Why then clingest thou to the present life? why lookest thou not on the future? and for the sake of this indeed canst bear even to commit idolatry, but for the other not so much as to restrain sadness? For this cause it is that there are none such now; because that (future) life hath seemed to us honorless, seeing that for its sake we do nothing, whilst for this there is nothing we refuse to undergo. And why too that other farce, ashes, and soot, and salt? and the old woman again brought in? A farce truly, and a shame! And then, “an eye,” say they, “hath caught the child.”
Where will these satanical doings end? How will not the Greeks laugh? how will they not gibe when we say unto them, “Great is the virtue of the Cross”; how will they be won, when they see us having recourse to those things, which themselves laugh to scorn? Was it for this that God gave physicians and medicines? What then? Suppose they do not cure him, but the child depart? Whither will he depart? tell me, miserable and wretched one! Will he depart to the demons? Will he depart to some tyrant? Will he not depart to heaven? Will he not depart to his own Lord? Why then grievest thou? why weepest thou? why mournest thou? why lovest thou thine infant more than thy Lord? Is it not through Him that thou hast this also? Why art thou ungrateful? Dost thou love the gift more than the Giver? “But I am weak,” she replies, “and cannot bear the fear of God.” Well, if in bodily evils the greater covers the less, much rather in the soul, fear destroyed fear, and sorrow, sorrow. Was the child beautiful? But be it what it may, not more beauteous is he than Isaac: and he too was an only one. Was it born in thine old age? So too was he. But is it fair? Well: however fair it may be, it is not lovelier than Moses (Acts vii. 20.), who drew even barbarian eyes unto a tender love of him, and this too at a time of life when beauty is not yet disclosed; and yet this beloved thing did the parents cast into the river. Thou indeed both seest it laid out, and deliverest it to the burying, and goest to its monument; but they did not so much as know whether it would be food for fishes, or for dogs, or for other beasts that prey in the sea; and this they did, knowing as yet nothing of the Kingdom, nor of the Resurrection.
But suppose it is not an only child; but that after thou hast lost many, this also hath departed. But not so sudden is thy calamity as was Job’s, and (his was) of sadder aspect?167 [This abrupt sentence was expanded as usual, in what came to be the common printed text.—J.A.B.] It is not when a roof has fallen in, it is not as they are feasting the while, it is not following on the tidings of other calamities.
But was it beloved by thee? But not more so than Joseph, the devoured of wild beasts; but still the father bore the calamity, and that which followed it, and the next to that. He wept; but acted not with impiety; he mourned, but he uttered not discontent, but stayed at those words, saying, “Joseph is not, Simeon is not, and will ye take Benjamin away? all these things are against me.”168 Or (Gr.), “are come upon me.” (Gen. xlii. 36.) Seest thou how the constraint of famine prevailed with him to be regardless of his children? and doth not the fear of God prevail with thee as much as famine?
Weep: I do not forbid thee: but aught blasphemous neither say nor do. Be thy child what he may, he is not like Abel; and yet nought of this kind did Adam say; although that calamity was a sore one, that his brother should have killed him. But I am reminded of others also that have killed their brothers; when, for instance, Absalom killed Amnon the eldest born (2 Sam. 13.), and King David loved his child,169 He passes on to the child of Bathsheba. and sat indeed in sackcloth and ashes, but he neither brought soothsayers, nor enchanters, (although there were such then, as Saul shows,) but he made supplication to God. So do thou likewise: as that just man did, so do thou also; the same words say thou, when thy child is dead, “I shall go to him, but he will not come to me.” (2 Sam. xii. 23.) This is true wisdom, this is affection. However much thou mayst love thy child, thou wilt not love so much as he did then. For even though his child were born of adultery, yet that blessed man’s love of the mother was at its height,170 ἤκμαζεν. 2 Sam. xii. 24 gives the impression that David laid the crime to his own charge, and regarded her as wronged. and ye know that the offspring shares the love of the parents. And so great was his love toward it, that he even wished it to live, though it would be his own accuser, but still he gave thanks to God. What, thinkest thou, did Rebecca suffer, when his brother threatened Jacob, and she grieved not her husband, but bade him send her son away? (Gen. xxvii. 46; xxviii. 1.) When thou hast suffered any calamity, think on what is worse than it; and thou wilt have a sufficient consolation; and consider with thyself, what if he had died in battle? what if in fire? And whatsoever our sufferings may be, let us think upon things yet more fearful, and we shall have comfort sufficient, and let us ever look around us on those who have undergone more terrible things, and if we ourselves have ever suffered heavier calamities. So doth Paul also exhort us; as when he saith, “Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin” (Heb. xii. 4.): and again, “There hath no temptation taken you but such as man can bear.” (1 Cor. x. 13.) Be then our sufferings what they may, let us look round on what is worse; (for we shall find such,) and thus shall we be thankful. And above all, let us give thanks for all things continually; for so, both these things will be eased, and we shall live to the glory of God, and obtain the promised good things, whereunto may all we attain, through the grace and love toward man, &c.
ΟΜΙΛΙΑ Ηʹ. Νεκρώσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, πορ νείαν, ἀκαθαρσίαν, πάθος, ἐπιθυμίαν κακὴν, καὶ τὴν πλεονεξίαν, ἥτις ἐστὶν εἰδωλολατρεία, δι' ἃ ἔρχεται ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐπὶ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας, ἐν οἷς καὶ ὑμεῖς περιεπατή σατέ ποτε, ὅτε ἐζῆτε ἐν αὐτοῖς. αʹ. Οἶδα πολλοὺς ἀπεχθανομένους ἐν τῇ πρὸ ταύτης διαλέξει: ἀλλὰ τί πάθω; ἠκούσατε τί ἐπέταξεν ὁ Δεσπότης. Μὴ γὰρ ἐγὼ αἴτιος; τί ποιήσω; Οὐχ ὁρᾶτε τοὺς ἀπαιτοῦντας, ὅταν ἀγνωμονῶσιν οἱ ὑπεύθυνοι, πῶς κλοιὰ τούτοις περιτιθέασιν; Ἠκούσατε τί σήμερον ὁ Παῦλος ἐβόα; Νεκρώσατε, φησὶ, τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, πορνείαν, ἀκαθαρσίαν, πάθος, ἐπιθυμίαν κακὴν, καὶ τὴν πλεονεξίαν, ἥτις ἐστὶν εἰδωλολατρεία. Τί τῆς τοιαύτης πλεονεξίας χεῖρον; Τοῦτο βαρύτερον οὗπερ ἔλεγον, ἡ μανία καὶ ἡ βλακεία ἡ περὶ ἄργυρον. Καὶ τὴν πλεονεξίαν, φησὶν, ἥτις ἐστὶν εἰδωλολατρεία: ὁρᾶτε ποῦ τὸ κακὸν τελευτᾷ; Μὴ δὴ δυσχεράνητε: οὐ γὰρ ἑκὼν οὐδὲ ἁπλῶς ἐχθροὺς ἔχειν θέλω, ἀλλ' ἐβουλόμην ὑμᾶς εἰς τοῦτο ἀρετῆς ἥκειν, ὡς ἐμὲ παρ' ὑμῶν ἀκούειν τὰ δέοντα. Ὥστε οὐκ αὐθεντίας ἐστὶν οὐδὲ ἀξιώματος, ἀλλ' ὀδύνης καὶ ἀλγηδόνος. Σύγγνωτέ μοι, σύγγνωτε: οὐ θέλω ἀσχημονεῖν ὑπὲρ τοιούτων διαλεγόμενος, ἀλλ' ἀναγκάζομαι. Οὐχ ὑπὲρ τῆς τῶν πενήτων ὀδύνης ταῦτα λέγω, ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ τῆς ὑμετέρας σωτηρίας: ἀπολοῦνται γὰρ, ἀπολοῦνται οἱ μὴ θρέψαντες τὸν Χριστόν. Τί γὰρ, εἰ τρέφεις πένητα; ἀλλ' ἕως ἂν οὕτω σπαταλᾷς καὶ οὕτω τρυφᾷς, πάντα περιττά. Οὐ γὰρ τὸ δοῦναι ζητεῖται πολλὰ, ἀλλὰ τὸ μὴ ἔλαττον τῆς οἰκείας οὐσίας: τοῦτο γὰρ παίζοντός ἐστι. Νεκρώσατε οὖν τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν, φησὶν, τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. Τί λέγεις; οὐ σὺ εἶπας, ὅτι Ἐτάφητε; ὅτι Συνετάφητε; ὅτι Περιετμήθητε; ὅτι Ἀπεξεδυσάμεθα τὸ σῶμα τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν τῆς σαρκός; πῶς οὖν πάλιν λέγεις, Νεκρώσατε; Μὴ παίζῃς: ὡς ὄντων αὐτῶν ἐν ἡμῖν οὕτω διαλέγῃ; Οὐκ ἔστιν ἐναντιολογία: ἀλλ' ὥσπερ εἴ τις ἐῤῥυπωμένον ἀνδριάντα ἀποσμήξας, μᾶλλον δὲ ἀναχαλκεύσας, καὶ λαμπρὸν δείξας ἄνωθεν, λέγοι μὲν ὅτι κατεπόθη ὁ ἰὸς καὶ ἀπώλετο, παραινοῖ δὲ πάλιν σπουδάζειν ἀποτίθεσθαι τὸν ἰὸν, οὐκ ἐναντιολογεῖ: οὐ γὰρ ὃν ἀπέσμηξεν ἰὸν, ἀλλὰ τὸν ἐπιγινόμενον μετὰ ταῦτα παραινεῖ ἀποθέσθαι: οὕτως οὐ τὴν προτέραν νέκρωσιν λέγει, οὐδὲ τὰς πορνείας ἐκείνας, ἀλλὰ τὰς ἐπιγινομένας ὕστερον. Ἀλλ' ἰδοὺ, φασὶν αἱρετικοὶ, τὴν δημιουργίαν Παῦλος διαβάλλει: εἶπε γὰρ ἔμπροσθεν, Τὰ ἄνω φρονεῖτε, μὴ τὰ ἐπὶ γῆς: πάλιν φησὶ, Νεκρώσατε ὑμῶν τὰ μέλη τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. Ἀλλὰ τὸ, ἐπὶ γῆς, ἐνταῦθα δηλωτικόν ἐστιν ἁμαρτίας, οὐ δημιουργίας διαβολή. Οὕτω γὰρ τὰ ἐπὶ γῆς αὐτὰ καλεῖ τὰ ἁμαρτήματα, ἢ τῷ ἀπὸ γεώδους λογισμοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς ἐνεργεῖσθαι, ἢ τῷ γηΐνους δεικνύναι τοὺς ἁμαρτάνοντας. Πορνείαν, ἀκαθαρσίαν, φησί. Παρῆκε τὰ πράγματα, ἃ οὐδὲ εἰπεῖν καλὸν, καὶ διὰ τῆς ἀκαθαρσίας ἅπαντα ἐνέφηνε. Πάθος, φησὶν, ἐπιθυμίαν κακήν. Ἰδοὺ γενικῶς τὸ πᾶν εἶπε: πάντα γὰρ ἐπιθυμία κακὴ, βασκανία, ὀργὴ, λύπη. Καὶ τὴν πλεονεξίαν, φησὶν, ἥτις ἐστὶν εἰδωλολατρεία. Διὰ ταῦτα γὰρ ἔρχεται ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐπὶ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας. Διὰ πολλῶν ἀπήγαγεν αὐτούς: διὰ τῶν εὐεργεσιῶν τῶν ὑπαρξασῶν, διὰ τῶν μελλόντων ἐξ ὧν ἀπηλλάγημεν κακῶν, τίνες ὄντες, καὶ διὰ τί, καὶ ὅλα ἐκεῖνα, οἷον, τίνες ἦμεν καὶ ἐν τίσιν, καὶ ὅτι ἀπηλλάγημεν αὐτῶν, πῶς καὶ τίνι τρόπῳ καὶ ἐπὶ τίσι. Ταῦτα ἱκανὰ ἀποστρέψαι: ἀλλὰ πάντων σφοδρότερον τοῦτο, ἀηδὲς μὲν εἰπεῖν, οὐ μὴν ἀνωφελὲς, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὠφέλιμον: Δι' ἃ ἔρχεται, φησὶν, ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐπὶ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας. Οὐκ εἶπεν, Ἐφ' ὑμᾶς, ἀλλ', Ἐπὶ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας. Ἐν οἷς καὶ ὑμεῖς περιεπατήσατέ ποτε, ὅτε ἐζῆτε ἐν αὐτοῖς. Ἐντρεπτικῶς, Ὅτε ἐζῆτε, φησὶν, ἐν αὐτοῖς, καὶ μετ' ἐγκωμίου, ὡς νῦν οὐ ζώντων: τότε ἐξῆν. Νυνὶ δὲ ἀπόθεσθε καὶ ὑμεῖς τὰ πάντα. Καὶ καθολικῶς ἀεὶ λέγει, καὶ ἰδικῶς: τοῦτο δέ ἐστι διαθέσεως. Ὀργὴν, θυμὸν, κακίαν βλασφημίαν, αἰσχρολογίαν ἐκ τοῦ στόματος ὑμῶν. Μὴ ψεύδεσθε εἰς ἀλλήλους. Αἰσχρολογίαν, φησὶν, ἐκ τοῦ στόματος ὑμῶν, ἐμφαντικῶς, ὅτι αὐτὸ ῥυποῖ. Ἀπεκδυσάμενοι τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον σὺν ταῖς πράξεσιν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐνδυσάμενοι τὸν νέον τὸν ἀνακαινούμενον εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν κατ' εἰκόνα τοῦ κτίσαντος αὐτόν. Ἄξιον ἐνταῦθα ζητῆσαι, τί δήποτε μέλη καὶ ἄνθρωπον καὶ σῶμα καλεῖ τὸν διεφθαρμένον βίον, καὶ τὸν ἐνάρετον πάλιν τὸ αὐτό. Καὶ εἰ ὁ ἄνθρωπός εἰσιν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι, πῶς φησι, Σὺν ταῖς πράξεσιν αὐτοῦ; Ἅπαξ γὰρ εἶπε παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον, δείξας ὅτι οὐ τοῦτό ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος, ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνο, Τῆς γὰρ οὐσίας ἡ προαίρεσις κυριωτέρα, καὶ τοῦτο μᾶλλον ἄνθρωπος, ἢ ἐκεῖνο. Οὐ γὰρ ἡ οὐσία ἐμβάλλει εἰς γέενναν, οὐδὲ εἰς βασιλείαν εἰσάγει, ἀλλ' αὐτὴ ἡ προαίρεσις, καὶ οὐδένα οὔτε φιλοῦμεν, οὔτε μισοῦμεν ᾗ ἄνθρωπος, ἀλλ' ᾗ τοιόσδε ἄνθρωπος. Εἰ τοίνυν ἡ μὲν οὐσία τὸ σῶμά ἐστιν, αὕτη δὲ ἀνυπεύθυνος ἐν ἑκατέροις, πῶς αὐτὸ κακὸν εἶναί φησι; βʹ. Τί δέ φησι, Σὺν ταῖς πράξεσι; Τὴν προαίρεσιν μετὰ τῶν ἔργων. Παλαιὸν δὲ αὐτὸν καλεῖ, τὸ αἰσχρὸν αὐτοῦ βουλόμενος δεῖξαι καὶ τὸ δυσειδὲς καὶ τὸ ἠσθενηκός: καὶ νέον, ἀντὶ τοῦ, Μὴ προσδοκήσητε, φησὶν, ὅτι καὶ οὗτος τὸ αὐτὸ πείσεται, ἀλλὰ τοὐναντίον: ὅσῳ γὰρ ἂν προΐῃ, οὐ πρὸς γῆρας ἐπείγεται, ἀλλὰ πρὸς νεότητα μείζονα τῆς προτέρας. Ὅταν γὰρ πλείονα λάβῃ τὴν γνῶσιν, καὶ μειζόνων ἀξιοῦται, καὶ μᾶλλον ἀκμάζει, καὶ μᾶλλον ἰσχύει, οὐκ ἀπὸ τῆς νεότητος μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῦ εἴδους πρὸς ὅ ἐστιν. Ἰδοὺ κτίσις ἡ ἀρίστη πολιτεία λέγεται. Κατ' εἰκόνα Χριστοῦ: τοῦτο γάρ ἐστι, Κατ' εἰκόνα τοῦ κτίσαντος αὐτόν: ἐπεὶ καὶ ὁ Χριστὸς οὐ πρὸς γῆρας ἐτελεύτησεν, ἀλλ' οὕτως ἦν καλὸς, ὡς μηδὲ εἶναι εἰπεῖν. Ὅπου οὐκ ἔνι Ἕλλην καὶ Ἰουδαῖος, περιτομὴ καὶ ἀκροβυστία, βάρβαρος, Σκύθης, δοῦλος, ἐλεύθερος, ἀλλὰ τὰ πάντα, καὶ ἐν πᾶσι Χριστός. Ἰδοὺ τρίτον ἐγκώμιον τοῦ ἀνδρὸς τούτου, ὅταν μήτε ἔθνους, μήτε ἀξιώματος, μήτε προγόνων διαφορὰ ἐπεισέρχηται, ὅταν ἔχῃ τῶν ἔξωθεν μηδὲν, μηδὲ δέηται τούτων: τοιαῦτα γὰρ πάντα τὰ ἔξωθεν. Περιτομὴ καὶ ἀκροβυστία: δοῦλος, ἐλεύθερος, Ἕλλην, τουτέστι, προσήλυτος: καὶ Ἰουδαῖος, τουτέστιν, ἐκ προγόνων. Ἂν τοῦτον ἔχῃς μόνον, τῶν αὐτῶν ἐπιτεύξῃ τοῖς ἄλλοις, τοῖς ἔχουσιν. Ἀλλὰ τὰ πάντα, καὶ ἐν πᾶσι, φησὶν, Χριστός: τουτέστι, Πάντα ὑμῖν ὁ Χριστὸς ἔσται, καὶ ἀξίωμα καὶ γένος, καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν ὑμῖν αὐτός. Ἢ ἕτερόν τί φησιν, ὅτι Πάντες Χριστὸς εἷς ἐγένεσθε, σῶμα αὐτοῦ ὄντες. Ἐνδύσασθε οὖν, ὡς ἐκλεκτοὶ τοῦ Θεοῦ, ἅγιοι καὶ ἠγαπημένοι. Τὸ εὔκολον δείκνυσι τῆς ἀρετῆς, ὥστε καὶ διηνεκῶς αὐτὴν ἔχειν, καὶ ὥστε ὡς μεγίστῳ κόσμῳ κεχρῆσθαι. Καὶ μετ' ἐγκωμίου ἡ παραίνεσις: τότε γὰρ μάλιστα ἰσχύει. Ἐγένοντο γὰρ ἅγιοι, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἐκλεκτοί: νυνὶ δὲ καὶ ἐκλεκτοὶ καὶ ἅγιοι καὶ ἠγαπημένοι. Σπλάγχνα οἰκτιρμοῦ. Οὐκ εἶπεν ἔλεον, ἀλλ' ἐμφαντικώτερον διὰ τῶν δύο. Καὶ οὐκ εἶπεν, ὅτι ὡς ἀδελφοῖς οὕτω διατίθεσθαι δεῖ, ἀλλ' ὡς παισὶ πατέρες. Μὴ γάρ μοι εἴπῃς, ὅτι ἥμαρτε: διὰ τοῦτο εἶπε σπλάγχνα. Καὶ οὐκ εἶπεν, οἰκτιρμὸν, ἵνα μὴ ἐκείνους ἐξευτελίσῃ, ἀλλὰ, Σπλάγχνα οἰκτιρμοῦ. Χρηστότητα, ταπεινοφροσύνην, πραότητα, μακροθυμίαν: ἀνεχόμενοι ἀλλήλων, καὶ χαριζόμενοι ἑαυτοῖς, ἐάν τις πρός τινα ἔχῃ μομφήν: καθὼς καὶ ὁ Χριστὸς ἐχαρίσατο ὑμῖν, οὕτω καὶ ὑμεῖς. Πάλιν κατ' εἶδος λέγει: ἀπὸ χρηστότητος γὰρ ταπεινοφροσύνη, καὶ ἀπὸ ταύτης μακροθυμία. Ἀνεχόμενοι, φησὶν, ἀλλήλων, τουτέστι, παραπεμπόμενοι. Καὶ ὅρα πῶς αὐτὸ οὐδὲν ἔδειξε, μομφὴν καλέσας. Εἶτα ἐπάγει: Καθὼς καὶ ὁ Χριστὸς ἐχαρίσατο ὑμῖν. Μέγα τὸ ὑπόδειγμα: ὅπερ ἀεὶ ποιεῖ, ἀπὸ τοῦ Χριστοῦ προτρέπων αὐτούς. Μομφὴν, φησί. Ἐκεῖ μὲν μικρὸν αὐτὸ ἔδειξεν: ὅτε δὲ τὸ ὑπόδειγμα παρήγαγεν, ἔπεισεν ὅτι κἂν μεγάλα ἔχωμεν ἐγκαλεῖν, δεῖ χαρίζεσθαι. Τὸ γὰρ, Καθὼς ὁ Χριστὸς, τοῦτο σημαίνει: καὶ οὐ τοῦτο μόνον, ἀλλ' ὅτι καὶ ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας: καὶ οὐ τοῦτο μόνον, ἀλλ' ὅτι καὶ φιλεῖν δεῖ. Ὁ γὰρ Χριστὸς εἰσαχθεὶς εἰς τὸ μέσον πάντα εἰσάγει ταῦτα: καὶ ὅτι κἂν μεγάλα ᾗ, κἂν μὴ προηδικηκότες τύχωμεν, κἂν ἡμεῖς μὲν μεγάλοι, ἐκεῖνοι δὲ μικροὶ, κἂν μέλλωσιν ὑβρίζειν ἡμᾶς καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα, καὶ ὅτι τὴν ψυχὴν δεῖ ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν θεῖναι: τὸ γὰρ, Καθὼς, ταῦτα ἀπαιτεῖ: καὶ ὅτι οὐδὲ μέχρι θανάτου μόνον στῆναι δεῖ, ἀλλ', εἰ δυνατὸν, καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα. Ἐπὶ πᾶσι δὲ τούτοις τὴν ἀγάπην, ἥτις ἐστὶ σύνδεσμος τῆς τελειότητος. Ὁρᾷς ὅτι τοῦτο λέγει. Ἐπειδὴ γὰρ ἔνι χαριζόμενον μὴ φιλεῖν, Ναὶ, φησὶ, καὶ φιλεῖν, καὶ ὁδὸν δείκνυσι, δι' ἧς δυνατὸν χαρίζεσθαι. Ἔστι γὰρ καὶ χρηστὸν εἶναί τινα καὶ πρᾶον καὶ ταπεινόφρονα καὶ μακρόθυμον, καὶ μὴ ποθεῖν. Διὸ ἀρχόμενος εἶπε, Σπλάγχνα οἰκτιρμοῦ, καὶ ἀγάπην, καὶ ἔλεον. Ἐπὶ πᾶσι δὲ τούτοις τὴν ἀγάπην, ἥτις ἐστὶ σύνδεσμος τῆς τελειότητος. Ὃ δὲ θέλει εἰπεῖν, τοῦτό ἐστιν, ὅτι Οὐδὲν ἐκείνων ὄφελος: διαλύεται γὰρ πάντα ἐκεῖνα, ἂν μὴ μετὰ ἀγάπης γίνηται. Πάντα ἐκεῖνα αὕτη συσφίγγει: ὅπερ ἂν εἴπῃς ἀγαθὸν, ταύτης ἀπούσης, οὐδέν ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ διαῤῥεῖ. Καὶ ὃν τρόπον ἐπὶ πλοίου, κἂν μεγάλα ᾖ τὰ σκεύη, τὰ δὲ ὑποζώματα μὴ ᾖ, οὐδὲν ὄφελος: καὶ ἐπὶ οἰκίας ἐὰν μὴ ὦσιν αἱ ἱμαντώσεις: καὶ ἐπὶ σώματος κἂν μεγάλα ᾖ τὰ ὀστᾶ, οἱ δὲ σύνδεσμοι μὴ ὦσιν, οὐδὲν ὄφελος. Οἷα γὰρ ἐάν τις ἔχῃ κατορθώματα, πάντα φροῦδα, ἀγάπης μὴ οὔσης. Οὐκ εἶπεν, ὅτι κορυφή ἐστιν, ἀλλ' ὃ μεῖζόν ἐστι, σύνδεσμος: ἀναγκαιότερον τοῦτο, ἢ ἐκεῖνο. Κορυφὴ μὲν γὰρ ἐπίτασις τελειότητος, σύνδεσμος δὲ συγκράτησις τῶν τὴν τελειότητα ποιούντων, ὡσανεὶ ἡ ῥίζα. Καὶ ἡ εἰρήνη τοῦ Θεοῦ βραβευέτω ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν, εἰς ἣν καὶ ἐκλήθητε ἐν σώματι ἑνί: καὶ εὐχάριστοι γίνεσθε. γʹ. Ἡ εἰρήνη τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡ πεπηγυῖα καὶ βεβαία αὕτη ἐστίν. Ἂν μὲν δι' ἄνθρωπον ἔχῃς εἰρήνην, ταχέως διαλύεται: ἐὰν δὲ διὰ τὸν Θεὸν, οὐκέτι. Καίτοι τὸ καθολικὸν εἶπε τὴν ἀγάπην, ἀλλὰ πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸ ἰδικὸν ἔρχεται. Ἔστι γὰρ καὶ ἄμετρος ἀγάπη, οἶον, ὅταν ἀπὸ πολλῆς τις ἀγάπης ἐγκαλῇ εἰκῆ, καὶ μάχας ἔχῃ καὶ ἀποστρέφηται. Οὒ, φησὶν, οὐ τοῦτο βούλομαι, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐποίησεν εἰρήνην πρὸς ὑμᾶς ὁ Θεὸς, οὕτω καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιεῖτε. Πῶς δὲ ἐποίησεν; Αὐτὸς θελήσας, οὐ παρ' ἡμῶν τι λαβών. Τί ἐστιν; Ἡ εἰρήνη τοῦ Θεοῦ βραβευέτω ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν; Ἐὰν μάχωνται λογισμοὶ δύο, μὴ στήσῃς τὸν θυμὸν, μὴ στήσῃς τὴν ἐπήρειαν κατέχουσαν τὸ βραβεῖον, ἀλλὰ τὴν εἰρήνην: οἷον, ἔστω τις ὑβρισθεὶς ἀδίκως: ἀπὸ τῆς ὕβρεως ἐτέχθησαν λογισμοὶ δύο, ὁ μὲν κελεύων ἀμύνασθαι, ὁ δὲ ἐνεγκεῖν, καὶ παλαίουσιν ἀλλήλοις. Ἐὰν ἡ εἰρήνη τοῦ Θεοῦ ἑστήκῃ βραβεύουσα, τῷ κελεύοντι φέρειν δίδωσι τὸ βραβεῖον, καὶ καταισχύνει ἐκεῖνον. Πῶς; Πείθουσα ὅτι ὁ Θεὸς εἰρήνη ἐστὶν, ὅτι εἰρήνευσεν ἡμῖν. Οὐχ ἁπλῶς δείκνυσι πολὺν τὸν ἀγῶνα τοῦ πράγματος. Μὴ θυμὸς, φησὶ, βραβευέτω, μὴ φιλονεικία, μὴ ἀνθρωπίνη εἰρήνη: ἡ γὰρ ἀνθρωπίνη εἰρήνη ἐκ τοῦ ἀμύνασθαι γίνεται, ἐκ τοῦ μηδὲν πάσχειν δεινόν. Ἀλλ' οὐ ταύτην βούλομαι, φησὶν, ἀλλ' ἐκείνην, ἣν ὁ Χριστὸς ἀφῆκεν αὐτός. Στάδιον ἔνδον ἐποίησεν ἐν τοῖς λογισμοῖς, καὶ ἀγῶνα καὶ ἄθλησιν καὶ βραβευτήν. Εἶτα πάλιν προτροπή: Εἰς ἣν ἐκλήθητε, φησί: τουτέστιν, ἐφ' ᾗ ἐκλήθητε. Ἀνέμνησεν ὅσων ἀγαθῶν αἰτία ἡ εἰρήνη. Διὰ ταύτην σε ἐκάλεσεν, ἐπὶ ταύτῃ ἐκάλεσεν, ὥστε ἀξιόπιστον ἀναδέξασθαι τὸ βραβεῖον. Διὰ τί γὰρ ἓν σῶμα ἐποίησεν; οὐχ ἵνα αὕτη κρατῇ; οὐχ ἵνα ἀφορμὴν ἔχωμεν τοῦ εἰρηνεύειν; Διὰ τί πάντες ἓν σῶμά ἐσμεν; πῶς δὲ ἓν σῶμά ἐσμεν; Διὰ τὴν εἰρήνην σῶμα ἕν ἐσμεν, καὶ διὰ τὸ σῶμα ἓν εἶναι, εἰρηνεύομεν. Διὰ τί δὲ οὐκ εἶπεν, Ἡ εἰρήνη τοῦ Θεοῦ νικάτω, ἀλλὰ, Βραβευέτω; Ἀξιοπιστοτέραν αὐτὴν ἐποίησε. Τὸν πονηρὸν λογισμὸν οὐκ ἀφῆκεν αὐτῇ προσπαλαίειν, ἀλλὰ κατώτερον ἑστάναι. Καὶ τὸ τοῦ βραβείου ὄνομα ἐπῆρε τὸν ἀκροατήν. Ἂν γὰρ δῷ βραβεῖον τῷ ἀγαθῷ λογισμῷ, ὅσα ἂν ἀναισχυντῇ ἐκεῖνος, οὐδὲν ὄφελος λοιπόν. Ἄλλως δὲ ἐκεῖνος εἰδὼς ἦν, ὅτι ὅσα ἂν ἐργάσηται, οὐ λήψεται τὸ βραβεῖον: ὅσα ἂν πνεύσῃ καὶ ἐπιχειρήσῃ σφοδρότερον προσβαλεῖν, ἅτε ἀνόητα πονῶν ἀποστήσεται. Καὶ καλῶς προσέθηκε, Καὶ εὐχάριστοι γίνεσθε. Τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν εὐχάριστον εἶναι, καὶ σφόδρα ἐντρεπτικῶς, τὸ ὁμοίως κεχρῆσθαι τοῖς ὁμοδούλοις, ὥσπερ αὐτῷ ὁ Θεὸς, τὸ εἴκειν τῷ δεσπότῃ, τὸ πείθεσθαι, τὸ ὑπὲρ πάντων χάριν ὁμολογεῖν, κἂν ὑβρίσῃ τις, κἂν πλήξῃ. Οὐ γὰρ δὴ ὁ τῷ Θεῷ χάριν ὁμολογῶν, ὑπὲρ ὧν ἔπαθε, τὸν ποιήσαντα ἀμυνεῖται: ὡς ὅγε ἀμυνόμενος οὐχ ὁμολογεῖ χάριν. Ἀλλὰ μὴ κατ' ἐκεῖνον τὸν τὰ ἑκατὸν δηνάρια γενώμεθα, ἵνα μὴ ἀκούσωμεν, Πονηρὲ δοῦλε: οὐδὲν γὰρ τῆς ἀχαριστίας ταύτης χεῖρον. Ὥστε ἀχάριστοι οἱ ἀμυνόμενοι. Διὰ τί δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν πορνείαν πρώτην ἦλθεν; εἰπὼν γὰρ, Νεκρώσατε ὑμῶν τὰ μέλη τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, εὐθύς φησι, Πορνείαν, καὶ τοῦτο σχεδὸν πανταχοῦ ποιεῖ. Ὅτι μάλιστα τοῦτο κρατεῖ τὸ πάθος: καὶ γὰρ καὶ ἐν τῇ πρὸς Θεσσαλονικεῖς γράφων, τοῦτο ἐποίησε. Καὶ τί θαυμαστόν; ὅπου γε καὶ Τιμοθέῳ φησὶ, Σεαυτὸν ἁγνὸν τήρει: καὶ πάλιν ἀλλαχοῦ, Εἰρήνην διώκετε μετὰ πάντων, καὶ τὸν ἁγιασμὸν, οὗ χωρὶς οὐδεὶς ὄψεται τὸν Κύριον. _Νεκρώσατε, φησὶ, τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν. Τὸ νεκρὸν ἴστε οἷόν ἐστι, μισητὸν, βδελυκτὸν, διαῤῥέον. Ἂν νεκρώσῃς, οὐ μένει νεκρὸν, ἀλλὰ φθείρεται εὐθέως, καθάπερ τὸ σῶμα. Σβέσον οὖν τὴν θερμότητα, καὶ οὐδὲν νεκρὸν μένει. Δείκνυσιν αὐτὸν τοῦτο ἐργαζόμενον, ὅπερ ὁ Χριστὸς ἐπὶ τοῦ λουτροῦ: διὰ τοῦτο καὶ μέλη καλεῖ: καθάπερ ἀριστέα τινὰ εἰσάγων, καὶ εἰς μείζονα ἄγων ἔμφασιν. Καὶ καλῶς εἶπε, Τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς: ἐνταῦθα γὰρ μένει, καὶ ἐνταῦθα φθείρεται, πολλῷ μᾶλλον τῶν μελῶν τούτων. Ὥστε οὐχ οὕτω τὸ σῶμά ἐστιν ἀπὸ γῆς, ὡς ἡ ἁμαρτία γηΐνη: τοῦτο μὲν γὰρ καὶ καλὸν φαίνεταί ποτε, ἐκεῖνα δὲ οὐδέποτε. Καὶ πάντων τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς ἐπιθυμεῖ ταῦτα τὰ μέλη. Ἂν ὀφθαλμὸς ᾖ τοιοῦτος, οὐχ ὁρᾷ τὰ ἐν οὐρανοῖς: ἂν ἀκοὴ, ἂν χεὶρ, ἂν ὁτιοῦν εἴπῃς μέλος. Ὀφθαλμὸς σώματα ὁρᾷ καὶ κάλλη καὶ χρήματα: ταῦτα τὰ ἀπὸ γῆς, τούτοις τέρπεται: ἡ ἀκοὴ μέλε. μαλθακῷ, κιθάρᾳ καὶ σύριγγι καὶ αἰσχρολογίᾳ: ταῦτα δὲ περὶ γῆν. Ἐπειδὴ οὖν ἔστησεν αὐτοὺς ἄνω παρὰ τὸν θρόνον, τότε φησὶ, Νεκρώσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. Οὐ γὰρ ἔνι στῆναι ἄνω μετὰ τούτων τῶν μελῶν: οὐκ ἔνι γὰρ ἐκεῖ, εἰς ὃ ἐνεργεῖν δεῖ. Καὶ οὗτος ὁ πηλὸς χείρων ἐκείνου: ἐκεῖνος μὲν γὰρ ὁ πηλὸς γίνεται χρυσός: Δεῖ γὰρ, φησὶ, τὸ φθαρτὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσασθαι ἀφθαρσίαν: οὗτος δὲ ὁ πηλὸς οὐκέτι ἀναχωνευθῆναι δύναται. Ὥστε ταῦτα μᾶλλον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ἢ ἐκεῖνα. Διὰ τοῦτο οὐκ εἶπεν Ἀπὸ γῆς, ἀλλὰ, Τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς: ἔνι γὰρ ταῦτα μὴ εἶναι ἀπὸ γῆς. Ταῦτα μὲν γὰρ ἀνάγκη ἐπὶ γῆς εἶναι, ἐκεῖνα δὲ οὐκέτι ἀνάγκη. Ὅταν γὰρ ἀκοὴ μηδὲν ἀκούῃ τῶν ἐνταῦθα, ἀλλὰ τῶν ἐν οὐρανοῖς λαλουμένων, ὅταν ὀφθαλμὸς μηδὲν ὁρᾷ τῶν ἐνταῦθα, ἀλλὰ τῶν ἄνω, οὐκ ἐπὶ γῆς ἐστιν: ὅταν τὸ στόμα μηδὲν φθέγγηται τῶν ἐνταῦθα, οὐκ ἐπὶ γῆς ἐστιν: ὅταν ἡ χεὶρ μηδὲν πράττῃ τῶν πονηρῶν, οὐκ ἔστι τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς, ἀλλὰ τῶν ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς. δʹ. Τοῦτο καὶ ὁ Χριστός φησιν, Ἐὰν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ὁ δεξιὸς σκανδαλίζῃ σε, τουτέστιν, Ἐὰν ἀκολάστως ὁρᾷς, ἔκκοψον αὐτόν: τουτέστι, τὸν λογισμὸν τὸν πονηρόν. Ἐμοὶ δὲ δοκεῖ πορνείαν, ἀκαθαρσίαν, πάθος, ἐπιθυμίαν, ταυτὸ λέγειν, τὴν πορνείαν, διὰ πάντων τούτων ἀπάγων ἡμᾶς τοῦ πράγματος. Πάθος γὰρ ὄντως τοῦτό ἐστι: καὶ καθάπερ τὸ σῶμα πάσχει, ἢ πυρέττει ἢ τραυματίζεται, οὕτω καὶ τοῦτο. Καὶ οὐκ εἶπεν, Ἐπίσχετε, ἀλλὰ, Νεκρώσατε, ὥστε μηδὲ ἀναστῆναι λοιπόν: καὶ ἀπόθεσθε. Τὸ νεκρούμενον ἀποτιθέμεθα: οἷον, τύλοι ἂν ὦσιν ἐν τῷ σώματι, τὸ σῶμα νεκρόν ἐστι, καὶ ἀποτιθέμεθα αὐτό. Ἀλλὰ ἐὰν μὲν ζῶν κόψῃς, ἀλγηδόνα παρέχει: ἂν δὲ νενεκρωμένον, οὐδὲ αἰσθανόμεθα. Οὕτω δὴ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν παθῶν: ἀκάθαρτον ποιεῖ τὴν ψυχὴν, παθητὴν ποιεῖ τὴν ψυχὴν τὴν ἀθάνατον. Πῶς εἰδωλολατρεία εἴρηται ἡ πλεονεξία, πολλάκις εἰρήκαμεν. Τὰ τυραννοῦντα γὰρ μάλιστα τὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων γένος, ταῦτά ἐστι, πλεονεξία καὶ ἀκολασία καὶ ἐπιθυμία κακή. Δι' ἃ ἔρχεται, φησὶν, ἡ ὀργὴ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐπὶ τοὺς υἱοὺς τῆς ἀπειθείας. Υἱοὺς ἀπειθείας λέγει, ἀποστερῶν αὐτοὺς συγγνώμης, καὶ δεικνὺς ὅτι παρὰ τὸ μὴ πεισθῆναι ἐν τούτοις εἰσίν. Ἐν οἷς καὶ ὑμεῖς, φησὶ, περιεπατήσατέ ποτε, καὶ ἐπείσθητε. Δείκνυσιν αὐτοὺς ἔτι ἐν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἐγκωμιάζει οὕτω λέγων: Νυνὶ δὲ καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀπόθεσθε τὰ πάντα, ὀργὴν, θυμὸν, κακίαν. βλασφημίαν, αἰσχρολογίαν. Οὐκ ἐπ' αὐτοὺς, ἀλλ' ἐφ' ἑτέρους προάγει τὸν λόγον, ὥστε μὴ πλῆξαι. Καὶ βλασφημίας δὲ τὰς λοιδορίας λέγει, καθάπερ θυμὸν τὴν πονηρίαν καλεῖ. Ἀλλαχοῦ δὲ ἐντρεπτικῶς, ὅτι Ἀλλήλων ἐσμὲν μέλη. Ὥσπερ δημιουργοὺς αὐτοὺς κατασκευάζει τῶν ἀνθρώπων, τὸν μὲν ῥιπτούντων, τὸν δὲ δεχομένων. Εἶπεν ἐκεῖ, Τὰ μέλη, ἐνταῦθα, Πάντα, φησὶ, τὴν καρδίαν, τὸν θυμὸν, τὸ στόμα, τὴν βλασφημίαν, τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς, τὴν πορνείαν, τὴν πλεονεξίαν, χεῖρας καὶ πόδας, ψεῦδος, τὴν διάνοιαν αὐτὴν, καὶ τὸν νοῦν τὸν παλαιόν. Μίαν ἔχει μορφὴν βασιλικὴν τὴν τοῦ Χριστοῦ. Δοκοῦσί μοι ἐξ ἐθνῶν εἶναι μᾶλλον οὗτοι, πρὸς οὓς καὶ ἀποτείνεται, δεικνὺς ὅτι μίαν ἔχει μορφὴν βασιλικὴν τὰ μέλη, κἂν ὁ μὲν μείζων ᾗ, ὁ δὲ ἐλάττων. Καθάπερ γὰρ ἡ γῆ ψάμμος οὖσα τὴν οἰκείαν ἀπολλῦσα πρότερον μορφὴν, ὕστερον χρυσῆ γίνεται: καὶ καθάπερ τὰ ἔρια, οἷα ἂν ᾖ, ἑτέραν δέχεται ὄψιν, καὶ τὴν προτέραν ἔκρυψεν: οὕτω δὴ καὶ ὁ πιστός. Ἀνεχόμενοι, φησὶν, ἀλλήλων. Ἔδειξε τὸ δίκαιον: ἀνέχου σὺ ἐκείνου, καὶ ἐκεῖνός σου: ὅπερ ἐν τῇ πρὸς Γαλάτας φησὶν, Ἀλλήλων τὰ βάρη βαστάζετε. Καὶ εὐχάριστοι, φησὶ, γίνεσθε. Μάλιστα μὲν πανταχοῦ τοῦτο ζητεῖ: τὸ κεφάλαιον τῶν ἀγαθῶν γὰρ τοῦτό ἐστιν. εʹ. Εὐχαριστῶμεν τοίνυν ἐν πᾶσιν, ὅπερ ἂν γένηται: τοῦτο γὰρ εὐχαριστία. Τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἐν τῇ εὐπραγίᾳ τοῦτο ποιεῖν, οὐ μέγα: αὐτὴ γὰρ τῶν πραγμάτων ἡ φύσις ἐπὶ τοῦτο ὠθεῖ: ὅταν δὲ ἐν τοῖς ἐσχάτοις ὄντες εὐχαριστῶμεν, τότε ἐστὶ θαυμαστόν. Ὅταν γὰρ ἐφ' οἷς ἕτεροι βλασφημοῦσι καὶ ἀποδυσπετοῦσιν, ἡμεῖς εὐχαριστῶμεν, ὅρα πόση ἡ φιλοσοφία. Πρῶτον, τὸν Θεὸν ηὔφρανας: δεύτερον, τὸν διάβολον κατῄσχυνας: τρίτον, καὶ τὸ γενόμενον οὐδὲν ἀπέφηνας: ὁμοῦ γὰρ σύ τε εὐχαριστεῖς, καὶ ὁ Θεὸς τὴν ὀδύνην ὑποτέμνεται, καὶ ὁ διάβολος ἀφίσταται. Ἂν μὲν γὰρ ἀποδυσπετήσῃς, ἅτε ἀνύσας ὅπερ ἤθελεν, ἐφέστηκε, καὶ ὁ Θεὸς ἅτε βλασφημηθεὶς, ἐγκαταλιμπάνει, καὶ ἐπιτείνεται τὸ δεινόν: ἐὰν δὲ εὐχαριστήσῃς, ἅτε μηδὲν ὠφελῶν, ἀφίσταται, καὶ ὁ Θεὸς ἅτε τιμηθεὶς, ἀντιτιμᾷ μειζόνως: καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄνθρωπον εὐχαριστοῦντα ἐπὶ τοῖς κακοῖς αἰσθέσθαι τῶν κακῶν. Χαίρει γὰρ ἡ ψυχὴ ἅτε κατορθοῦσα, εὐθέως φαιδρὸν ἔχει τὸ συνειδὸς, γάννυται τοῖς ἐγκωμίοις τοῖς ἑαυτῆς: τὴν δὲ φαιδρὰν οὐκ ἔνι σκυθρωπὴν εἶναι. Ἐκεῖ δὲ μετὰ τῆς συμφορᾶς καὶ τὸ συνειδὸς ἐπίκειται μαστίζον: ἐνταῦθα δὲ στεφανοῖ καὶ ἀνακηρύττει. Οὐδὲν τῆς γλώττης ἐκείνης ἁγιώτερον τῆς ἐν τοῖς κακοῖς εὐχαριστούσης τῷ Θεῷ: ὄντως τῆς τῶν μαρτύρων οὐδὲν ἀποδεῖ: ὁμοίως καὶ αὕτη, κἀκεῖνος στεφανοῦται. Καὶ γὰρ καὶ ταύτῃ ἐφέστηκε δήμιος ἀναγκάζων ἀρνήσασθαι τὸν Θεὸν διὰ τῆς βλασφημίας, ἐφέστηκεν ὁ διάβολος δημίοις λογισμοῖς καταξαίνων, ἀθυμίαις σκοτῶν. Ἂν τοίνυν ἐνέγκῃ τὰς ἀλγηδόνας τις, καὶ εὐχαριστήσῃ, μαρτυρίου στέφανον ἔλαχεν. Οἷον, τὸ παιδίον νοσεῖ, καὶ εὐχαριστεῖ τῷ Θεῷ: τοῦτο αὐτῇ στέφανος. Πόσης βασάνου οὐ χείρων ἡ ἀθυμία; ἀλλ' οὐκ ἀναγκάζει ῥῆμα ἐκβαλεῖν πικρόν. Ἀποθνήσκει: πάλιν ηὐχαρίστησε; Γέγονε θυγάτηρ τοῦ Ἀβραάμ. Εἰ γὰρ μὴ τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἔσφαξε χειρὶ, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τῇ θυσίᾳ ἥσθη, ὅπερ ἴσον ἐστίν: οὐ γὰρ ἠγανάκτησε λαμβανομένου τοῦ δώρου. Πάλιν ἐνόσησεν: οὐκ ἐποίησε περίαπτα; Μαρτύριον αὐτῇ λογίζεται: κατέθυσε γὰρ τὸν υἱὸν τῇ γνώμῃ. Τί γὰρ, εἰ καὶ μηδὲν ὠφελεῖ ἐκεῖνα, ἀλλ' ἀπάτης ἐστὶ καὶ χλεύης; ἀλλ' ὅμως ἦσαν οἱ πείθοντες ὅτι ὠφελεῖ: καὶ εἵλετο μᾶλλον νεκρὸν τὸ παιδίον ἰδεῖν, ἢ εἰδωλολατρείας ἀνασχέσθαι. Ὥσπερ οὖν αὕτη μάρτυς, ἄν τε ἐφ' ἑαυτῆς, ἄν τε ἐπὶ τοῦ παιδὸς ἐργάζηται τοῦτο, ἄν τε ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς, ἢ ἑτέρου τινὸς τῶν φιλτάτων: οὕτως ἡ ἑτέρα εἰδωλολάτρις. Δῆλον γὰρ ὅτι ἔθυσεν ἂν, εἰ ἦν θῦσαι: μᾶλλον δὲ ἤδη ἐποίησε τὸ τῆς θυσίας. Τὰ γὰρ περίαπτα, κἂν μυρία φιλοσοφῶσιν οἱ ἐκ τούτων χρηματιζόμενοι, λέγοντες ὅτι τὸν Θεὸν καλοῦμεν, καὶ οὐδὲν πλέον ποιοῦμεν, καὶ ὅσα τοιαῦτα, καὶ Χριστιανή ἐστιν ἡ γραῦς καὶ πιστὴ, εἰδωλολατρεία τὸ πρᾶγμά ἐστι. Πιστὴ εἶ; σφράγισον, εἰπέ. Τοῦτο ἔχω τὸ ὅπλον μόνον, τοῦτο τὸ φάρμακον: ἄλλο δὲ οὐκ οἶδα. Εἰπέ μοι, ἐὰν προσελθὼν ἰατρὸς, καὶ τὰ τῆς ἰατρικῆς φάρμακα ἀφεὶς, ἐπᾴδῃ, τοῦτον ἰατρὸν ἐροῦμεν; Οὐδαμῶς: τὰ γὰρ τῆς ἰατρικῆς οὐχ ὁρῶμεν φάρμακα. Οὕτως οὐδὲ ἐνταῦθα τὰ τοῦ Χριστιανισμοῦ. Ἕτεραι δὲ πάλιν ποταμῶν ὀνόματα περιάπτουσι, καὶ μυρία τοιαῦτα τολμῶσιν. Ἰδοὺ λέγω, καὶ προλέγω πᾶσιν ὑμῖν, ὅτι ἐάν τις ἁλῷ, οὐ φείσομαι πάλιν, ἄν τε περίαπτον, ἄν τε ἐπῳδὴν, ἄν τε ἄλλο τι τῆς τέχνης τῆς τοιαύτης ποιῇ. Τί οὖν, ἀποθάνῃ, φησὶ, τὸ παιδίον; Ἂν οὕτω ζήσῃ, τότε ἀπέθανεν: ἂν δὲ ἄνευ ἐκείνων ἀποθάνῃ, τότε ἔζησε. Νῦν δὲ ἂν μὲν πόρναις ἴδῃς προσέχοντα, εὔχῃ κατορυγῆναι, καὶ λέγεις. Τί γὰρ ὄφελος τοῦ ζῇν; ὑπὲρ δὲ σωτηρίας ὁρῶσα κινδυνεύοντα, βούλει ζῶντα ὁρᾷν; Οὐκ ἤκουσας τοῦ Χριστοῦ λέγοντος, ὅτι Ὁ ἀπολέσας τὴν ψυχὴν αὑτοῦ, εὑρήσει αὐτήν: ὁ δὲ εὑρὼν, ἀπολέσει αὐτήν; πιστεύεις τοῖς εἰρημένοις, ἢ μῦθοί σοι δοκοῦσιν εἶναι; Εἰπὲ δή μοι, ἐὰν εἴπῃ τις, ὅτι Ἀπάγαγε εἰς εἰδωλεῖον, καὶ ζήσεται, ἀνέξῃ; Οὒ, φησί. Διὰ τίς Ὅτι εἰδωλολατρεῖν ἀναγκάζει: ἐνταῦθα δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν εἰδωλολατρεία, ἀλλ' ἁπλῶς ἐπῳδὴ, φησίν. Αὕτη γὰρ ἡ σατανικὴ ἔννοια, αὕτη ἡ μεθοδεία ἡ διαβολικὴ, συγκαλύπτειν τὴν πλάνην, καὶ ἐν μέλιτι τὸ δηλητήριον διδόναι φάρμακον. Ἐπειδὴ οἶδεν ἐκεῖθέν σε οὐ πείθων, ταύτην ἐβάδισε τὴν ὁδὸν εἰς περιάμματα καὶ γραώδεις μύθους: καὶ ὁ μὲν σταυρὸς ἠτίμωται, τὰ δὲ γράμματα προτετίμηται: ὁ Χριστὸς ἐκβέβληται, καὶ εἰσάγεται μεθύουσα γραῦς καὶ ληροῦσα: τὸ μυστήριον πεπάτηται τὸ ἡμέτερον, καὶ πλάνη χορεύει τοῦ διαβόλου. Τίνος οὖν ἕνεκεν οὐκ ἐλέγχει, φησὶν, ὁ Θεός; Τὴν ἀπὸ τῶν τοιούτων βοήθειαν πολλαχοῦ ἤλεγξε, καὶ οὐκ ἔπεισέ σε: λοιπὸν ἀφίησι τῇ πλάνῃ: Παρέδωκε γὰρ αὐτοὺς, φησὶν, ὁ Θεὸς εἰς ἀδόκιμον νοῦν. Ταῦτα δὲ οὐδ' ἂν Ἕλλην νοῦν ἔχων ἀνάσχοιτο. Λέγεταί τις δημαγωγός ποτε ἐν Ἀθήναις ταῦτα περιτεθῆναι: εἶτα φιλόσοφός τις ἐκείνου διδάσκαλος ἰδὼν, ἐπετίμησεν, ἐμέμψατο, ἔδακεν, ἐκωμῴδησεν: ἡμεῖς δὲ οὕτως ἀθλίως διακείμεθα, ὡς καὶ τούτοις πιστεύειν. Καὶ διὰ τί μή εἰσι νῦν οἱ ἀνιστῶντες, φησὶ, νεκροὺς καὶ ἰάσεις ἐπιτελοῦντες; Διὰ τί, τέως οὐ λέγω: διὰ τί δὲ μή εἰσι νῦν οἱ τῆς παρούσης καταφρονοῦντες ζωῆς; διὰ τί ἐπὶ μισθῷ δουλεύομεν τῷ Θεῷ; Ὅτε ἀσθενέστερον διέκειτο ἡ φύσις ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη, ὅτε φυτευθῆναι τὴν πίστιν ἔδει, ἦσαν καὶ τοιοῦτοι πολλοί: νῦν δὲ οὐ βούλεται ἡμᾶς τούτων ἠρτῆσθαι τῶν σημείων, ἀλλ' ἑτοίμους εἶναι πρὸς θάνατον. Τί τοίνυν τῆς παρούσης ἔχῃ ζωῆς; τί τὰ μέλλοντα οὐχ ὁρᾷς; καὶ ὑπὲρ μὲν ταύτης καὶ εἰδωλολατρεῖν ἀνέχῃ, ὑπὲρ δὲ ἐκείνης οὐδὲ ἀθυμίας κατασχεῖν; Διὰ ταῦτα οὐκ εἰσὶ νῦν τοιοῦτοι, ὅτι ἄτιμος ἡμῖν ἐφάνη ἐκείνη ἡ ζωὴ, εἴ γε ὑπὲρ μὲν ἐκείνης οὐδὲν πράττομεν, ὑπὲρ δὲ ταύτης οὐδὲν παραιτούμεθα ὑπομένειν. Τί δὲ καὶ ὁ ἄλλος γέλως, σποδὸς καὶ ἀσβόλη καὶ ἅλες; καὶ πάλιν τὸ γραΐδιον εἰς τὸ μέσον. Γέλως ὄντως, καὶ αἰσχύνη. Καὶ ὀφθαλμὸς, φησὶν, ἥρπασε τὸ παιδίον. Μέχρι τίνος ταῦτα τὰ σατανικά; πῶς οὐ γελάσονται Ἕλληνες; πῶς οὐ χλευάσουσιν, ὅταν αὐτοῖς λέγωμεν, Μεγάλη ἡ δύναμις τοῦ σταυροῦ; πῶς πεισθήσονται, ὅταν ὁρῶσι τούτων δεομένους, ὧν αὐτοὶ καταγελῶσι; διὰ ταῦτα ὁ Θεὸς ἰατροὺς ἔδωκε καὶ φάρμακα; Τί οὖν, ἂν μὴ θεραπεύωσιν ἐκεῖνοι, ἀλλὰ ἀπέρχηται τὸ παιδίον; Ποῦ ἄπεισιν, εἰπέ μοι, ἄθλιε καὶ ταλαίπωρε; πρὸς τοὺς δαίμονας ἄπεισι; πρός τινα τύραννον ἄπεισιν; οὐχὶ πρὸς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἄπεισιν; οὐχὶ πρὸς τὸν οἰκεῖον Δεσπότην; τί οὖν ἀλγεῖς; τί κλαίεις; τί πενθεῖς; τί τοῦ Δεσπότου σου πλέον τὸ παιδίον φιλεῖς; οὐχὶ δι' ἐκείνου ἔχεις καὶ τοῦτο; διὰ τί ἀχάριστος εἶ, τὸ δῶρον τοῦ δωρησαμένου πλέον ἀγαπῶν; Ἀλλ' ἀσθενής εἰμι, φησὶ, καὶ οὐ φέρω τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸν φόβον. Εἰ γὰρ ἐν τοῖς σωματικοῖς κακοῖς τὸ μεῖζον τὸ ἔλαττον κρύπτει, πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ φόβος εἰ προσῆν, φόβος φόβον ἂν ἔλυσε, καὶ λύπη λύπην. Καλὸν ἦν τὸ παιδίον; Ἀλλ' οἷον ἂν ᾖ, οὐκ ἔστιν ὡραιότερον τοῦ Ἰσαάκ: μονογενὴς ἦν κἀκεῖνος. Ἐν γήρᾳ σοι γέγονε; Κἀκεῖνος. Ἀλλ' ἀστεῖόν ἐστιν; Ἀλλ' οἷον ἂν ᾖ, οὐκ ἔστιν ὡραιότερον τοῦ Μωϋσέως, ὃς καὶ βαρβαρικὴν ὄψιν ἐπεσπάσατο πρὸς πόθον, καὶ ταῦτα ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῆς ἡλικίας τῷ καιρῷ, ἔνθα οὐδέπω φαίνεται ἡ ὥρα: ἀλλ' ὅμως τὸ φιληθὲν τοῦτο ἔῤῥιπτον εἰς ποταμὸν οἱ γονεῖς. Σὺ μὲν καὶ ὁρᾷς κείμενον, καὶ ταφῇ παραδίδως, καὶ εἰς τὸ σῆμα ἄπει: ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οὐδὲ ᾔδεσαν πότερον ἰχθύσιν ἔσται βορὰ, πότερον κυσὶ, πότερον ἑτέρῳ θηρίῳ τῶν κατὰ τὴν θάλατταν βοσκομένων: καὶ ταῦτα ἐποίουν, οὐδέπω περὶ βασιλείας οὐδὲν εἰδότες, οὐδὲ περὶ ἀναστάσεως. Ἀλλ' οὐκ ἔστι μονογενὲς, ἀλλὰ μετὰ πολλοὺς καὶ αὐτὸ ἀπῆλθεν; Ἀλλ' οὐχ οὕτως ὡς ἐπὶ τοῦ Ἰὼβ ἀθρόα ἡ συμφορὰ, καὶ σκυθρωποτέρα: οὐ στέγης κατενεχθείσης, οὐκ ἀριστώντων μεταξὺ, οὐ τῶν συμφορῶν προαγγελθεισῶν. Ἀλλ' ἐφιλεῖτο παρὰ σοῦ; Ἀλλ' οὐχὶ μᾶλλον τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ τοῦ θηριοβρώτου γενομένου: ἀλλ' ὅμως ἔνεγκε τὴν συμφορὰν, καὶ τὴν μετ' ἐκείνην, καὶ τὴν μετὰ ταύτην. Ὁ πατὴρ ἔκλαυσεν, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἠσέβησεν: ἐπένθησεν, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἀπεδυσπέτησεν, ἀλλὰ μέχρι τούτων ἔστη τῶν ῥημάτων, λέγων: Ἰωσὴφ οὐκ ἔστι, Συμεὼν οὐκ ἔστι, καὶ τὸν Βενιαμὶμ λήψεσθε; ἐπ' ἐμὲ ἐγένετο ταῦτα πάντα. Ὁρᾷς πῶς ἐκεῖνον λιμοῦ τυραννὶς ἔπεισε καταφρονῆσαι τῶν παίδων: παρὰ δὲ σοὶ οὐκ ἰσχύει ὁ τοῦ Θεοῦ φόβος ὅσον ὁ λιμός; Κλαῦσον, οὐ κωλύω, ἀλλὰ μηδὲν βλάσφημον μήτε εἴπῃς, μήτε πράξῃς. Οἷος ἐὰν ᾖ ὁ παῖς, οὐκ ἔστι κατὰ τὸν Ἄβελ: ἀλλ' οὐδὲν τοιοῦτον εἶπεν ὁ Ἀδάμ. Καίτοι χαλεπὴ ἐκείνη ἡ συμφορά: τί γὰρ χαλεπώτερον τοῦ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἀνῃρηκέναι; Ἀλλὰ γὰρ καὶ ἀδελφοκτόνων εὐκαίρως ἄλλων ἀνεμνήσθην: οἷον ὅτε Ἀβεσσαλὼμ τὸν Ἀμνὼν ἀνεῖλε τὸν πρωτότοκον: καὶ Δαυῒδ ὁ βασιλεὺς ἠγάπα τὸ παιδίον, καὶ ἐν σάκκῳ μὲν ἐκάθητο καὶ σποδῷ. Οὔτε δὲ μάντεις ἤγαγεν, οὔτε ἐπῳδοὺς, καίτοι ἦσαν τότε: καὶ δηλοῖ ὁ Σαούλ: ἀλλὰ τὸν Θεὸν ἱκέτευε. Τοῦτο καὶ σὺ ποίει: ὅπερ ὁ δίκαιος ἐποίησε, ποίησον καὶ σύ: τὰ αὐτὰ εἰπὲ ῥήματα, ὅταν ἀποθάνῃ τὸ παιδίον: Ἐγὼ μὲν ἀπελεύσομαι πρὸς αὐτὸ, αὐτὸ δὲ οὐχ ἥξει πρός με. Τοῦτο φιλοσοφίας, τοῦτο φιλοστοργίας. Ὡς ἂν φιλῇς τὸ παιδίον, οὐ φιλεῖς τοσοῦτον ὅσον ἐκεῖνος τότε: τῷ μακαρίῳ ἐκείνῳ ἤκμαζεν ὁ περὶ τὴν μητέρα πόθος, εἰ καὶ ἐκ μοιχειῶν ἦν. Ἴστε δὲ ὅτι κοινωνεῖ τὰ τικτόμενα τοῦ φίλτρου τῶν τικτόντων. Καὶ τοσοῦτος ὁ ἔρως ἦν, ὡς καὶ κατήγορον αὐτῷ ὃν βούλεσθαι ζῇν: ἀλλ' ὅμως ηὐχαρίστησε τῷ Θεῷ. Τί οἴει πάσχειν τὴν Ῥεβέκκαν, ὅτε ἀδελφὸς ἠπείλησε τῷ Ἰακώβ; οὐκ ἐλύπησε τὸν ἄνδρα, ἀλλ' ἐκέλευσεν ἀποπέμψαι. Ἐννόησον τὰ τούτων χείρω, ὅταν τι δεινὸν πάθῃς, καὶ ἱκανὴν ἕξεις παραμυθίαν: καὶ λογίζου, τί δὲ, εἰ ἐν πολέμῳ τεθνήκοι; τί δὲ, εἰ ἐν πυρί; Καὶ ὧν ἐὰν πάθωμεν, τὰ δεινότερα ἐννοῶμεν, καὶ ἕξομεν ἀρκοῦσαν παραμυθίαν: καὶ τοὺς τὰ δεινότερα πεπονθότας ἀεὶ περισκοπῶμεν, καὶ εἰ αὐτοὶ βαρύτερα ἐπάθομέν ποτε. Οὕτω καὶ Παῦλος προτρέπει, ὡς ὅταν λέγῃ: Οὔπω μέχρις αἵματος ἀντικατέστητε πρὸς τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἀνταγωνιζόμενοι, καὶ πάλιν, Πειρασμὸς ὑμᾶς οὐκ εἴληφεν, εἰ μὴ ἀνθρώπινος. Ὧν οὖν ἂν πάθωμεν, τὰ χείρω περισκοπῶμεν: εὑρήσομεν γὰρ, καὶ οὕτως ἐσόμεθα εὐχάριστοι. Πρὸ δὲ πάντων εὐχαριστῶμεν ἐπὶ πᾶσι διηνεκῶς: οὕτω γὰρ καὶ ταῦτα παύσεται, καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς δόξαν Θεοῦ ζήσομεν, καὶ τῶν ἐπηγγελμένων ἀγαθῶν ἐπιτευξόμεθα: ὧν γένοιτο πάντας ἡμᾶς ἐπιτυχεῖν, χάριτι καὶ φιλανθρωπίᾳ.