Dialogue of Justin, Philosopher and Martyr, with Trypho, a Jew

 Chapter I.—Introduction.

 Chapter II.—Justin describes his studies in philosophy.

 Chapter III.—Justin narrates the manner of his conversion.

 Chapter IV.—The soul of itself cannot see God.

 Chapter V.—The soul is not in its own nature immortal.

 Chapter VI.—These things were unknown to Plato and other philosophers.

 Chapter VII.—The knowledge of truth to be sought from the prophets alone.

 Chapter VIII.—Justin by his colloquy is kindled with love to Christ.

 Chapter IX.—The Christians have not believed groundless stories.

 Chapter X.—Trypho blames the Christians for this alone—the non-observance of the law.

 Chapter XI.—The law abrogated the New Testament promised and given by God.

 Chapter XII.—The Jews violate the eternal law, and interpret ill that of Moses.

 Chapter XIII.—Isaiah teaches that sins are forgiven through Christ’s blood.

 Chapter XIV.—Righteousness is not placed in Jewish rites, but in the conversion of the heart given in baptism by Christ.

 Chapter XV.—In what the true fasting consists.

 Chapter XVI.—Circumcision given as a sign, that the Jews might be driven away for their evil deeds done to Christ and the Christians.

 Chapter XVII.—The Jews sent persons through the whole earth to spread calumnies on Christians.

 Chapter XVIII.—Christians would observe the law, if they did not know why it was instituted.

 Chapter XIX.—Circumcision unknown before Abraham. The law was given by Moses on account of the hardness of their hearts.

 Chapter XX.—Why choice of meats was prescribed.

 Chapter XXI.—Sabbaths were instituted on account of the people’s sins, and not for a work of righteousness.

 Chapter XXII.—So also were sacrifices and oblations.

 Chapter XXIII.—The opinion of the Jews regarding the law does an injury to God.

 Chapter XXIV.—The Christians’ circumcision far more excellent.

 Chapter XXV.—The Jews boast in vain that they are sons of Abraham.

 Chapter XXVI.—No salvation to the Jews except through Christ.

 Chapter XXVII.—Why God taught the same things by the prophets as by Moses.

 Chapter XXVIII.—True righteousness is obtained by Christ.

 Chapter XXIX.—Christ is useless to those who observe the law.

 Chapter XXX.—Christians possess the true righteousness.

 Chapter XXXI.—If Christ’s power be now so great, how much greater at the second advent!

 Chapter XXXII.—Trypho objecting that Christ is described as glorious by Daniel, Justin distinguishes two advents.

 Chapter XXXIII.—Ps. cx. is not spoken of Hezekiah. He proves that Christ was first humble, then shall be glorious.

 Chapter XXXIV.—Nor does Ps. lxxii. apply to Solomon, whose faults Christians shudder at.

 Chapter XXXV.—Heretics confirm the Catholics in the faith.

 Chapter XXXVI.—He proves that Christ is called Lord of Hosts.

 Chapter XXXVII.—The same is proved from other Psalms.

 Chapter XXXVIII.—It is an annoyance to the Jew that Christ is said to be adored. Justin confirms it, however, from Ps. xlv.

 Chapter XXXIX.—The Jews hate the Christians who believe this. How great the distinction is between both!

 Chapter XL.—He returns to the Mosaic laws, and proves that they were figures of the things which pertain to Christ.

 Chapter XLI.—The oblation of fine flour was a figure of the Eucharist.

 Chapter XLII.—The bells on the priest’s robe were a figure of the apostles.

 Chapter XLIII.—He concludes that the law had an end in Christ, who was born of the Virgin.

 Chapter XLIV.—The Jews in vain promise themselves salvation, which cannot be obtained except through Christ.

 Chapter XLV.—Those who were righteous before and under the law shall be saved by Christ.

 Chapter XLVI.—Trypho asks whether a man who keeps the law even now will be saved. Justin proves that it contributes nothing to righteousness.

 Chapter XLVII.—Justin communicates with Christians who observe the law. Not a few Catholics do otherwise.

 Chapter XLVIII.—Before the divinity of Christ is proved, he [Trypho] demands that it be settled that He is Christ.

 Chapter XLIX.—To those who object that Elijah has not yet come, he replies that he is the precursor of the first advent.

 Chapter L.—It is proved from Isaiah that John is the precursor of Christ.

 Chapter LI.—It is proved that this prophecy has been fulfilled.

 Chapter LII.—Jacob predicted two advents of Christ.

 Chapter LIII.—Jacob predicted that Christ would ride on an ass, and Zechariah confirms it.

 Chapter LIV.—What the blood of the grape signifies.

 Chapter LV.—Trypho asks that Christ be proved God, but without metaphor. Justin promises to do so.

 Chapter LVI.—God who appeared to Moses is distinguished from God the Father.

 Chapter LVII.—The Jew objects, why is He said to have eaten, if He be God? Answer of Justin.

 Chapter LVIII.—The same is proved from the visions which appeared to Jacob.

 Chapter LIX.—God distinct from the Father conversed with Moses.

 Chapter LX.—Opinions of the Jews with regard to Him who appeared in the bush.

 Chapter LXI—Wisdom is begotten of the Father, as fire from fire.

 Chapter LXII.—The words “Let Us make man” agree with the testimony of Proverbs.

 Chapter LXIII.—It is proved that this God was incarnate.

 Chapter LXIV.—Justin adduces other proofs to the Jew, who denies that he needs this Christ.

 Chapter LXV.—The Jew objects that God does not give His glory to another. Justin explains the passage.

 Chapter LXVI.—He proves from Isaiah that God was born from a virgin.

 Chapter LXVII.—Trypho compares Jesus with Perseus and would prefer [to say] that He was elected [to be Christ] on account of observance of the law. J

 Chapter LXVIII.—He complains of the obstinacy of Trypho he answers his objection he convicts the Jews of bad faith.

 Chapter LXIX.—The devil, since he emulates the truth, has invented fables about Bacchus, Hercules, and Æsculapius.

 Chapter LXX.—So also the mysteries of Mithras are distorted from the prophecies of Daniel and Isaiah.

 Chapter LXXI.—The Jews reject the interpretation of the LXX., from which, moreover, they have taken away some passages.

 Chapter LXXII.—Passages have been removed by the Jews from Esdras and Jeremiah.

 Chapter LXXIII.—[The words] “From the wood” have been cut out of Ps. xcvi.

 Chapter LXXIV.—The beginning of Ps. xcvi. is attributed to the Father [by Trypho]. But [it refers] to Christ by these words: “Tell ye among the nation

 Chapter LXXV.—It is proved that Jesus was the name of God in the book of Exodus.

 Chapter LXXVI.—From other passages the same majesty and government of Christ are proved.

 Chapter LXXVII.—He returns to explain the prophecy of Isaiah.

 Chapter LXXVIII.—He proves that this prophecy harmonizes with Christ alone, from what is afterwards written.

 Chapter LXXIX.—He proves against Trypho that the wicked angels have revolted from God.

 Chapter LXXX.—The opinion of Justin with regard to the reign of a thousand years. Several Catholics reject it.

 Chapter LXXXI.—He endeavours to prove this opinion from Isaiah and the Apocalypse.

 Chapter LXXXII.—The prophetical gifts of the Jews were transferred to the Christians.

 Chapter LXXXIII.—It is proved that the Psalm, “The Lord said to My Lord,” etc., does not suit Hezekiah.

 Chapter LXXXIV.—That prophecy, “Behold, a virgin,” etc., suits Christ alone.

 Chapter LXXXV.—He proves that Christ is the Lord of Hosts from Ps. xxiv., and from his authority over demons.

 Chapter LXXXVI.—There are various figures in the Old Testament of the wood of the cross by which Christ reigned.

 Chapter LXXXVII.—Trypho maintains in objection these words: “And shall rest on Him,” etc. They are explained by Justin.

 Chapter LXXXVIII.—Christ has not received the Holy Spirit on account of poverty.

 Chapter LXXXIX.—The cross alone is offensive to Trypho on account of the curse, yet it proves that Jesus is Christ.

 Chapter XC.—The stretched-out hands of Moses signified beforehand the cross.

 Chapter XCI.—The cross was foretold in the blessings of Joseph, and in the serpent that was lifted up.

 Chapter XCII.—Unless the scriptures be understood through God’s great grace, God will not appear to have taught always the same righteousness.

 Chapter XCIII.—The same kind of righteousness is bestowed on all. Christ comprehends it in two precepts.

 Chapter XCIV.—In what sense he who hangs on a tree is cursed.

 Chapter XCV.—Christ took upon Himself the curse due to us.

 Chapter XCVI.—That curse was a prediction of the things which the Jews would do.

 Chapter XCVII.—Other predictions of the cross of Christ.

 Chapter XCVIII.—Predictions of Christ in Ps. xxii.

 Chapter XCIX.—In the commencement of the Psalm are Christ’s dying words.

 Chapter C.—In what sense Christ is [called] Jacob, and Israel, and Son of Man.

 Chapter CI.—Christ refers all things to the Father

 Chapter CII.—The prediction of the events which happened to Christ when He was born. Why God permitted it.

 Chapter CIII.—The Pharisees are the bulls: the roaring lion is Herod or the devil.

 Chapter CIV.—Circumstances of Christ’s death are predicted in this Psalm.

 Chapter CV.—The Psalm also predicts the crucifixion and the subject of the last prayers of Christ on Earth.

 Chapter CVI.—Christ’s resurrection is foretold in the conclusion of the Psalm.

 Chapter CVII.—The same is taught from the history of Jonah.

 Chapter CVIII.—The resurrection of Christ did not convert the Jews. But through the whole world they have sent men to accuse Christ.

 Chapter CIX.—The conversion of the Gentiles has been predicted by Micah.

 Chapter CX.—A portion of the prophecy already fulfilled in the Christians: the rest shall be fulfilled at the second advent.

 Chapter CXI.—The two advents were signified by the two goats. Other figures of the first advent, in which the Gentiles are freed by the blood of Chris

 Chapter CXII.—The Jews expound these signs jejunely and feebly, and take up their attention only with insignificant matters.

 Chapter CXIII.—Joshua was a figure of Christ.

 Chapter CXIV.—Some rules for discerning what is said about Christ. The circumcision of the Jews is very different from that which Christians receive.

 Chapter CXV.—Prediction about the Christians in Zechariah. The malignant way which the Jews have in disputations.

 Chapter CXVI.—It is shown how this prophecy suits the Christians.

 Chapter CXVII.—Malachi’s prophecy concerning the sacrifices of the Christians. It cannot be taken as referring to the prayers of Jews of the dispersio

 Chapter CXVIII.—He exhorts to repentance before Christ comes in whom Christians, since they believe, are far more religious than Jews.

 Chapter CXIX.—Christians are the holy people promised to Abraham. They have been called like Abraham.

 Chapter CXX.—Christians were promised to Isaac, Jacob, and Judah.

 Chapter CXXI.—From the fact that the Gentiles believe in Jesus, it is evident that He is Christ.

 Chapter CXXII.—The Jews understand this of the proselytes without reason.

 Chapter CXXIII.—Ridiculous interpretations of the Jews. Christians are the true Israel.

 Chapter CXXIV.—Christians are the sons of God.

 Chapter CXXV.—He explains what force the word Israel has, and how it suits Christ.

 Chapter CXXVI.—The various names of Christ according to both natures. It is shown that He is God, and appeared to the patriarchs.

 Chapter CXXVII.—These passages of Scripture do not apply to the Father, but to the Word.

 Chapter CXXVIII.—The Word is sent not as an inanimate power, but as a person begotten of the Father’s substance.

 Chapter CXXIX.—That is confirmed from other passages of Scripture.

 Chapter CXXX.—He returns to the conversion of the Gentiles, and shows that it was foretold.

 Chapter CXXXI.—How much more faithful to God the Gentiles are who are converted to Christ than the Jews.

 Chapter CXXXII.—How great the power was of the name of Jesus in the Old Testament.

 Chapter CXXXIII.—The hard-heartedness of the Jews, for whom the Christians pray.

 Chapter CXXXIV.—The marriages of Jacob are a figure of the Church.

 Chapter CXXXV.—Christ is king of Israel, and Christians are the Israelitic race.

 Chapter CXXXVI.—The Jews, in rejecting Christ, rejected God who sent him.

 Chapter CXXXVII.—He exhorts the Jews to be converted.

 Chapter CXXXVIII.—Noah is a figure of Christ, who has regenerated us by water, and faith, and wood: [i.e., the cross .]

 Chapter CXXXIX.—The blessings, and also the curse, pronounced by Noah were prophecies of the future.

 Chapter CXL.—In Christ all are free. The Jews hope for salvation in vain because they are sons of Abraham.

 Chapter CXLI.—Free-will in men and angels.

 Chapter CXLII.—The Jews return thanks, and leave Justin.

Chapter II.—Justin describes his studies in philosophy.

“I will tell you,” said I, “what seems to me; for philosophy is, in fact, the greatest possession, and most honourable before God,8    ὧ some omit, and put θεῷ of prev. cl. in this cl., reading so: “Philosophy is the greatest possession, and most honourable, and introduces us to God,” etc. to whom it leads us and alone commends us; and these are truly holy men who have bestowed attention on philosophy. What philosophy is, however, and the reason why it has been sent down to men, have escaped the observation of most; for there would be neither Platonists, nor Stoics, nor Peripatetics, nor Theoretics,9    Maranus thinks that those who are different from the masters of practical philosophy are called Theoretics. I do not know whether they may be better designated Sceptics or Pyrrhonists.—Otto. nor Pythagoreans, this knowledge being one.10    Julian, Orat., vi., says: “Let no one divide our philosophy into many parts, or cut it into many parts, and especially let him not make many out of one: for as truth is one, so also is philosophy.” I wish to tell you why it has become many-headed. It has happened that those who first handled it [i.e., philosophy], and who were therefore esteemed illustrious men, were succeeded by those who made no investigations concerning truth, but only admired the perseverance and self-discipline of the former, as well as the novelty of the doctrines; and each thought that to be true which he learned from his teacher: then, moreover, those latter persons handed down to their successors such things, and others similar to them; and this system was called by the name of him who was styled the father of the doctrine. Being at first desirous of personally conversing with one of these men, I surrendered myself to a certain Stoic; and having spent a considerable time with him, when I had not acquired any further knowledge of God (for he did not know himself, and said such instruction was unnecessary), I left him and betook myself to another, who was called a Peripatetic, and as he fancied, shrewd. And this man, after having entertained me for the first few days, requested me to settle the fee, in order that our intercourse might not be unprofitable. Him, too, for this reason I abandoned, believing him to be no philosopher at all. But when my soul was eagerly desirous to hear the peculiar and choice philosophy, I came to a Pythagorean, very celebrated—a man who thought much of his own wisdom. And then, when I had an interview with him, willing to become his hearer and disciple, he said, ‘What then? Are you acquainted with music, astronomy, and geometry? Do you expect to perceive any of those things which conduce to a happy life, if you have not been first informed on those points which wean the soul from sensible objects, and render it fitted for objects which appertain to the mind, so that it can contemplate that which is honourable in its essence and that which is good in its essence?’ Having commended many of these branches of learning, and telling me that they were necessary, he dismissed me when I confessed to him my ignorance. Accordingly I took it rather impatiently, as was to be expected when I failed in my hope, the more so because I deemed the man had some knowledge; but reflecting again on the space of time during which I would have to linger over those branches of learning, I was not able to endure longer procrastination. In my helpless condition it occurred to me to have a meeting with the Platonists, for their fame was great. I thereupon spent as much of my time as possible with one who had lately settled in our city,11    Either Flavia Neapolis is indicated, or Ephesus.—Otto. —a sagacious man, holding a high position among the Platonists,—and I progressed, and made the greatest improvements daily. And the perception of immaterial things quite overpowered me, and the contemplation of ideas furnished my mind with wings,12    Narrating his progress in the study of Platonic philosophy, he elegantly employs this trite phrase of Plato’s.—Otto. so that in a little while I supposed that I had become wise; and such was my stupidity, I expected forthwith to look upon God, for this is the end of Plato’s philosophy.

[2] Ἐγώ σοι, ἔφην, ἐρῶ ὅ γέ μοι καταφαίνεται. ἔστι γὰρ τῷ ὄντι φιλοσοφία μέγιστον κτῆμα καὶ τιμιώτατον θεῷ, ᾧ τε προσάγει καὶ συνίστησιν ἡμᾶς μόνη, καὶ ὅσιοι ὡς ἀληθῶς οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ φιλοσοφίᾳ τὸν νοῦν προσεσχηκότες. τί ποτε δέ ἐστι φιλοσοφία καὶ οὗ χάριν κατεπέμφθη εἰς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, τοὺς πολλοὺς λέληθεν; οὐ γὰρ ἂν Πλατωνικοὶ ἦσαν οὐδὲ Στωϊκοὶ οὐδὲ Περιπατητικοὶ οὐδὲ Θεωρητικοὶ οὐδὲ Πυθαγορικοί, μιᾶς οὔσης ταύτης ἐπιστήμης. οὗ δὲ χάριν πολύκρανος ἐγενήθη, θέλω εἰπεῖν. συνέβη τοῖς πρώτοις ἁψαμένοις αὐτῆς καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐνδόξοις γενομένοις ἀκολουθῆσαι τοὺς ἔπειτα μηδὲν ἐξετάσαντας ἀληθείας πέρι, καταπλαγέντας δὲ μόνον τὴν καρτερίαν αὐτῶν καὶ τὴν ἐγκράτειαν καὶ τὸ ξένον τῶν λόγων ταῦτα ἀληθῆ νομίσαι ἃ παρὰ τοῦ διδασκάλου ἕκαστος ἔμαθεν, εἶτα καὶ αὐτούς, τοῖς ἔπειτα παραδόντας τοιαῦτα ἄττα καὶ ἄλλα τούτοις προσεοικότα, τοῦτο κληθῆναι τοὔνομα, ὅπερ ἐκαλεῖτο ὁ πατὴρ τοῦ λόγου. ἐγώ τε κατ' ἀρχὰς οὕτω ποθῶν καὶ αὐτὸς συμβαλεῖν τούτων ἑνί, ἐπέδωκα ἐμαυτὸν Στωϊκῷ τινι: καὶ διατρίψας ἱκανὸν μετ' αὐτοῦ χρόνον, ἐπεὶ οὐδὲν πλέον ἐγίνετό μοι περὶ θεοῦ (οὐδὲ γὰρ αὐτὸς ἠπίστατο, οὐδὲ ἀναγκαίαν ἔλεγε ταύτην εἶναι τὴν μάθησιν), τούτου μὲν ἀπηλλάγην, ἐπ' ἄλλον δὲ ἧκα, Περιπατητικὸν καλούμενον, δριμύν, ὡς ᾤετο. καί μου ἀνασχόμενος οὗτος τὰς πρώτας ἡμέρας ἠξίου με ἔπειτα μισθὸν ὁρίσαι, ὡς μὴ ἀνωφελὴς ἡ συνουσία γίνοιτο ἡμῖν. καὶ αὐτὸν ἐγὼ διὰ ταύτην τὴν αἰτίαν κατέλιπον, μηδὲ φιλόσοφον οἰηθεὶς ὅλως. τῆς δὲ ψυχῆς ἔτι μου σπαργώσης ἀκοῦσαι τὸ ἴδιον καὶ τὸ ἐξαίρετον τῆς φιλοσοφίας, προσῆλθον εὐδοκιμοῦντι μάλιστα Πυθαγορείῳ, ἀνδρὶ πολὺ ἐπὶ τῇ σοφίᾳ φρονοῦντι. κἄπειτα ὡς διελέχθην αὐτῷ, βουλόμενος ἀκροατὴς αὐτοῦ καὶ συνουσιαστὴς γενέσθαι: Τί δαί; ὡμίλησας, ἔφη, μουσικῇ καὶ ἀστρονομίᾳ καὶ γεωμετρίᾳ; ἢ δοκεῖς κατόψεσθαί τι τῶν εἰς εὐδαιμονίαν συντελούντων, εἰ μὴ ταῦτα πρῶτον διδαχθείης, ἃ τὴν ψυχὴν ἀπὸ τῶν αἰσθητῶν περισπάσει καὶ τοῖς νοητοῖς αὐτὴν παρασκευάσει χρησίμην, ὥστε αὐτὸ κατιδεῖν τὸ καλὸν καὶ αὐτὸ ὅ ἐστιν ἀγαθόν; πολλά τε ἐπαινέσας ταῦτα τὰ μαθήματα καὶ ἀναγκαῖα εἰπὼν ἀπέπεμπέ με, ἐπεὶ αὐτῷ ὡμολόγησα μὴ εἰδέναι. ἐδυσφόρουν οὖν, ὡς τὸ εἰκός, ἀποτυχὼν τῆς ἐλπίδος, καὶ μᾶλλον ᾗ ἐπίστασθαί τι αὐτὸν ᾠόμην: πάλιν τε τὸν χρόνον σκοπῶν, ὃν ἔμελλον ἐκτρίβειν περὶ ἐκεῖνα τὰ μαθήματα, οὐκ ἠνειχόμην εἰς μακρὰν ἀποτιθέμενος. ἐν ἀμηχανίᾳ δέ μου ὄντος ἔδοξέ μοι καὶ τοῖς Πλατωνικοῖς ἐντυχεῖν: πολὺ γὰρ καὶ τούτων ἦν κλέος. καὶ δὴ νεωστὶ ἐπιδημήσαντι τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ πόλει συνετῷ ἀνδρὶ καὶ προὔχοντι ἐν τοῖς Πλατωνικοῖς συνδιέτριβον ὡς τὰ μάλιστα, καὶ προέκοπτον καὶ πλεῖστον ὅσον ἑκάστης ἡμέρας ἐπεδίδουν. καί με ᾕρει σφόδρα ἡ τῶν ἀσωμάτων νόησις, καὶ ἡ θεωρία τῶν ἰδεῶν ἀνεπτέρου μοι τὴν φρόνησιν, ὀλίγου τε ἐντὸς χρόνου ᾤμην σοφὸς γεγονέναι, καὶ ὑπὸ βλακείας ἤλπιζον αὐτίκα κατόψεσθαι τὸν θεόν: τοῦτο γὰρ τέλος τῆς Πλάτωνος φιλοσοφίας.