Dialogue of Justin, Philosopher and Martyr, with Trypho, a Jew

 Chapter I.—Introduction.

 Chapter II.—Justin describes his studies in philosophy.

 Chapter III.—Justin narrates the manner of his conversion.

 Chapter IV.—The soul of itself cannot see God.

 Chapter V.—The soul is not in its own nature immortal.

 Chapter VI.—These things were unknown to Plato and other philosophers.

 Chapter VII.—The knowledge of truth to be sought from the prophets alone.

 Chapter VIII.—Justin by his colloquy is kindled with love to Christ.

 Chapter IX.—The Christians have not believed groundless stories.

 Chapter X.—Trypho blames the Christians for this alone—the non-observance of the law.

 Chapter XI.—The law abrogated the New Testament promised and given by God.

 Chapter XII.—The Jews violate the eternal law, and interpret ill that of Moses.

 Chapter XIII.—Isaiah teaches that sins are forgiven through Christ’s blood.

 Chapter XIV.—Righteousness is not placed in Jewish rites, but in the conversion of the heart given in baptism by Christ.

 Chapter XV.—In what the true fasting consists.

 Chapter XVI.—Circumcision given as a sign, that the Jews might be driven away for their evil deeds done to Christ and the Christians.

 Chapter XVII.—The Jews sent persons through the whole earth to spread calumnies on Christians.

 Chapter XVIII.—Christians would observe the law, if they did not know why it was instituted.

 Chapter XIX.—Circumcision unknown before Abraham. The law was given by Moses on account of the hardness of their hearts.

 Chapter XX.—Why choice of meats was prescribed.

 Chapter XXI.—Sabbaths were instituted on account of the people’s sins, and not for a work of righteousness.

 Chapter XXII.—So also were sacrifices and oblations.

 Chapter XXIII.—The opinion of the Jews regarding the law does an injury to God.

 Chapter XXIV.—The Christians’ circumcision far more excellent.

 Chapter XXV.—The Jews boast in vain that they are sons of Abraham.

 Chapter XXVI.—No salvation to the Jews except through Christ.

 Chapter XXVII.—Why God taught the same things by the prophets as by Moses.

 Chapter XXVIII.—True righteousness is obtained by Christ.

 Chapter XXIX.—Christ is useless to those who observe the law.

 Chapter XXX.—Christians possess the true righteousness.

 Chapter XXXI.—If Christ’s power be now so great, how much greater at the second advent!

 Chapter XXXII.—Trypho objecting that Christ is described as glorious by Daniel, Justin distinguishes two advents.

 Chapter XXXIII.—Ps. cx. is not spoken of Hezekiah. He proves that Christ was first humble, then shall be glorious.

 Chapter XXXIV.—Nor does Ps. lxxii. apply to Solomon, whose faults Christians shudder at.

 Chapter XXXV.—Heretics confirm the Catholics in the faith.

 Chapter XXXVI.—He proves that Christ is called Lord of Hosts.

 Chapter XXXVII.—The same is proved from other Psalms.

 Chapter XXXVIII.—It is an annoyance to the Jew that Christ is said to be adored. Justin confirms it, however, from Ps. xlv.

 Chapter XXXIX.—The Jews hate the Christians who believe this. How great the distinction is between both!

 Chapter XL.—He returns to the Mosaic laws, and proves that they were figures of the things which pertain to Christ.

 Chapter XLI.—The oblation of fine flour was a figure of the Eucharist.

 Chapter XLII.—The bells on the priest’s robe were a figure of the apostles.

 Chapter XLIII.—He concludes that the law had an end in Christ, who was born of the Virgin.

 Chapter XLIV.—The Jews in vain promise themselves salvation, which cannot be obtained except through Christ.

 Chapter XLV.—Those who were righteous before and under the law shall be saved by Christ.

 Chapter XLVI.—Trypho asks whether a man who keeps the law even now will be saved. Justin proves that it contributes nothing to righteousness.

 Chapter XLVII.—Justin communicates with Christians who observe the law. Not a few Catholics do otherwise.

 Chapter XLVIII.—Before the divinity of Christ is proved, he [Trypho] demands that it be settled that He is Christ.

 Chapter XLIX.—To those who object that Elijah has not yet come, he replies that he is the precursor of the first advent.

 Chapter L.—It is proved from Isaiah that John is the precursor of Christ.

 Chapter LI.—It is proved that this prophecy has been fulfilled.

 Chapter LII.—Jacob predicted two advents of Christ.

 Chapter LIII.—Jacob predicted that Christ would ride on an ass, and Zechariah confirms it.

 Chapter LIV.—What the blood of the grape signifies.

 Chapter LV.—Trypho asks that Christ be proved God, but without metaphor. Justin promises to do so.

 Chapter LVI.—God who appeared to Moses is distinguished from God the Father.

 Chapter LVII.—The Jew objects, why is He said to have eaten, if He be God? Answer of Justin.

 Chapter LVIII.—The same is proved from the visions which appeared to Jacob.

 Chapter LIX.—God distinct from the Father conversed with Moses.

 Chapter LX.—Opinions of the Jews with regard to Him who appeared in the bush.

 Chapter LXI—Wisdom is begotten of the Father, as fire from fire.

 Chapter LXII.—The words “Let Us make man” agree with the testimony of Proverbs.

 Chapter LXIII.—It is proved that this God was incarnate.

 Chapter LXIV.—Justin adduces other proofs to the Jew, who denies that he needs this Christ.

 Chapter LXV.—The Jew objects that God does not give His glory to another. Justin explains the passage.

 Chapter LXVI.—He proves from Isaiah that God was born from a virgin.

 Chapter LXVII.—Trypho compares Jesus with Perseus and would prefer [to say] that He was elected [to be Christ] on account of observance of the law. J

 Chapter LXVIII.—He complains of the obstinacy of Trypho he answers his objection he convicts the Jews of bad faith.

 Chapter LXIX.—The devil, since he emulates the truth, has invented fables about Bacchus, Hercules, and Æsculapius.

 Chapter LXX.—So also the mysteries of Mithras are distorted from the prophecies of Daniel and Isaiah.

 Chapter LXXI.—The Jews reject the interpretation of the LXX., from which, moreover, they have taken away some passages.

 Chapter LXXII.—Passages have been removed by the Jews from Esdras and Jeremiah.

 Chapter LXXIII.—[The words] “From the wood” have been cut out of Ps. xcvi.

 Chapter LXXIV.—The beginning of Ps. xcvi. is attributed to the Father [by Trypho]. But [it refers] to Christ by these words: “Tell ye among the nation

 Chapter LXXV.—It is proved that Jesus was the name of God in the book of Exodus.

 Chapter LXXVI.—From other passages the same majesty and government of Christ are proved.

 Chapter LXXVII.—He returns to explain the prophecy of Isaiah.

 Chapter LXXVIII.—He proves that this prophecy harmonizes with Christ alone, from what is afterwards written.

 Chapter LXXIX.—He proves against Trypho that the wicked angels have revolted from God.

 Chapter LXXX.—The opinion of Justin with regard to the reign of a thousand years. Several Catholics reject it.

 Chapter LXXXI.—He endeavours to prove this opinion from Isaiah and the Apocalypse.

 Chapter LXXXII.—The prophetical gifts of the Jews were transferred to the Christians.

 Chapter LXXXIII.—It is proved that the Psalm, “The Lord said to My Lord,” etc., does not suit Hezekiah.

 Chapter LXXXIV.—That prophecy, “Behold, a virgin,” etc., suits Christ alone.

 Chapter LXXXV.—He proves that Christ is the Lord of Hosts from Ps. xxiv., and from his authority over demons.

 Chapter LXXXVI.—There are various figures in the Old Testament of the wood of the cross by which Christ reigned.

 Chapter LXXXVII.—Trypho maintains in objection these words: “And shall rest on Him,” etc. They are explained by Justin.

 Chapter LXXXVIII.—Christ has not received the Holy Spirit on account of poverty.

 Chapter LXXXIX.—The cross alone is offensive to Trypho on account of the curse, yet it proves that Jesus is Christ.

 Chapter XC.—The stretched-out hands of Moses signified beforehand the cross.

 Chapter XCI.—The cross was foretold in the blessings of Joseph, and in the serpent that was lifted up.

 Chapter XCII.—Unless the scriptures be understood through God’s great grace, God will not appear to have taught always the same righteousness.

 Chapter XCIII.—The same kind of righteousness is bestowed on all. Christ comprehends it in two precepts.

 Chapter XCIV.—In what sense he who hangs on a tree is cursed.

 Chapter XCV.—Christ took upon Himself the curse due to us.

 Chapter XCVI.—That curse was a prediction of the things which the Jews would do.

 Chapter XCVII.—Other predictions of the cross of Christ.

 Chapter XCVIII.—Predictions of Christ in Ps. xxii.

 Chapter XCIX.—In the commencement of the Psalm are Christ’s dying words.

 Chapter C.—In what sense Christ is [called] Jacob, and Israel, and Son of Man.

 Chapter CI.—Christ refers all things to the Father

 Chapter CII.—The prediction of the events which happened to Christ when He was born. Why God permitted it.

 Chapter CIII.—The Pharisees are the bulls: the roaring lion is Herod or the devil.

 Chapter CIV.—Circumstances of Christ’s death are predicted in this Psalm.

 Chapter CV.—The Psalm also predicts the crucifixion and the subject of the last prayers of Christ on Earth.

 Chapter CVI.—Christ’s resurrection is foretold in the conclusion of the Psalm.

 Chapter CVII.—The same is taught from the history of Jonah.

 Chapter CVIII.—The resurrection of Christ did not convert the Jews. But through the whole world they have sent men to accuse Christ.

 Chapter CIX.—The conversion of the Gentiles has been predicted by Micah.

 Chapter CX.—A portion of the prophecy already fulfilled in the Christians: the rest shall be fulfilled at the second advent.

 Chapter CXI.—The two advents were signified by the two goats. Other figures of the first advent, in which the Gentiles are freed by the blood of Chris

 Chapter CXII.—The Jews expound these signs jejunely and feebly, and take up their attention only with insignificant matters.

 Chapter CXIII.—Joshua was a figure of Christ.

 Chapter CXIV.—Some rules for discerning what is said about Christ. The circumcision of the Jews is very different from that which Christians receive.

 Chapter CXV.—Prediction about the Christians in Zechariah. The malignant way which the Jews have in disputations.

 Chapter CXVI.—It is shown how this prophecy suits the Christians.

 Chapter CXVII.—Malachi’s prophecy concerning the sacrifices of the Christians. It cannot be taken as referring to the prayers of Jews of the dispersio

 Chapter CXVIII.—He exhorts to repentance before Christ comes in whom Christians, since they believe, are far more religious than Jews.

 Chapter CXIX.—Christians are the holy people promised to Abraham. They have been called like Abraham.

 Chapter CXX.—Christians were promised to Isaac, Jacob, and Judah.

 Chapter CXXI.—From the fact that the Gentiles believe in Jesus, it is evident that He is Christ.

 Chapter CXXII.—The Jews understand this of the proselytes without reason.

 Chapter CXXIII.—Ridiculous interpretations of the Jews. Christians are the true Israel.

 Chapter CXXIV.—Christians are the sons of God.

 Chapter CXXV.—He explains what force the word Israel has, and how it suits Christ.

 Chapter CXXVI.—The various names of Christ according to both natures. It is shown that He is God, and appeared to the patriarchs.

 Chapter CXXVII.—These passages of Scripture do not apply to the Father, but to the Word.

 Chapter CXXVIII.—The Word is sent not as an inanimate power, but as a person begotten of the Father’s substance.

 Chapter CXXIX.—That is confirmed from other passages of Scripture.

 Chapter CXXX.—He returns to the conversion of the Gentiles, and shows that it was foretold.

 Chapter CXXXI.—How much more faithful to God the Gentiles are who are converted to Christ than the Jews.

 Chapter CXXXII.—How great the power was of the name of Jesus in the Old Testament.

 Chapter CXXXIII.—The hard-heartedness of the Jews, for whom the Christians pray.

 Chapter CXXXIV.—The marriages of Jacob are a figure of the Church.

 Chapter CXXXV.—Christ is king of Israel, and Christians are the Israelitic race.

 Chapter CXXXVI.—The Jews, in rejecting Christ, rejected God who sent him.

 Chapter CXXXVII.—He exhorts the Jews to be converted.

 Chapter CXXXVIII.—Noah is a figure of Christ, who has regenerated us by water, and faith, and wood: [i.e., the cross .]

 Chapter CXXXIX.—The blessings, and also the curse, pronounced by Noah were prophecies of the future.

 Chapter CXL.—In Christ all are free. The Jews hope for salvation in vain because they are sons of Abraham.

 Chapter CXLI.—Free-will in men and angels.

 Chapter CXLII.—The Jews return thanks, and leave Justin.

Chapter XXXIV.—Nor does Ps. lxxii. apply to Solomon, whose faults Christians shudder at.

“Further, to persuade you that you have not understood anything of the Scriptures, I will remind you of another psalm, dictated to David by the Holy Spirit, which you say refers to Solomon, who was also your king. But it refers also to our Christ. But you deceive yourselves by the ambiguous forms of speech. For where it is said, ‘The law of the Lord is perfect,’ you do not understand it of the law which was to be after Moses, but of the law which was given by Moses, although God declared that He would establish a new law and a new covenant. And where it has been said, ‘O God, give Thy judgment to the king,’ since Solomon was king, you say that the Psalm refers to him, although the words of the Psalm expressly proclaim that reference is made to the everlasting King, i.e., to Christ. For Christ is King, and Priest, and God, and Lord, and angel, and man, and captain, and stone, and a Son born, and first made subject to suffering, then returning to heaven, and again coming with glory, and He is preached as having the everlasting kingdom: so I prove from all the Scriptures. But that you may perceive what I have said, I quote the words of the Psalm; they are these: ‘O God, give Thy judgment to the king, and Thy righteousness unto the king’s son, to judge Thy people with righteousness, and Thy poor with judgment. The mountains shall take up peace to the people, and the little hills righteousness. He shall judge the poor of the people, and shall save the children of the needy, and shall abase the slanderer. He shall co-endure with the sun, and before the moon unto all generations. He shall come down like rain upon the fleece, as drops falling on the earth. In His days shall righteousness flourish, and abundance of peace until the moon be taken away. And He shall have dominion from sea to sea, and from the rivers unto the ends of the earth. Ethiopians shall fall down before Him, and His enemies shall lick the dust. The kings of Tarshish and the isles shall offer gifts; the kings of Arabia and Seba shall offer gifts; and all the kings of the earth shall worship Him, and all the nations shall serve Him: for He has delivered the poor from the man of power, and the needy that hath no helper. He shall spare the poor and needy, and shall save the souls of the needy: He shall redeem their souls from usury and injustice, and His name shall be honourable before them. And He shall live, and to Him shall be given of the gold of Arabia, and they shall pray continually for Him: they shall bless Him all the day. And there shall be a foundation on the earth, it shall be exalted on the tops of the mountains: His fruit shall be on Lebanon, and they of the city shall flourish like grass of the earth. His name shalt be blessed for ever. His name shall endure before the sun; and all tribes of the earth shall be blessed in Him, all nations shall call Him blessed. Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things; and blessed be His glorious name for ever, and for ever and ever; and the whole earth shall be filled with His glory. Amen, amen.’86    Ps. lxxii. And at the close of this Psalm which I have quoted, it is written, ‘The hymns of David the son of Jesse are ended.’87    [A striking passage in De Maistre (Œuvres, vol. vi. p. 275) is worthy of comparison.] Moreover, that Solomon was a renowned and great king, by whom the temple called that at Jerusalem was built, I know; but that none of those things mentioned in the Psalm happened to him, is evident. For neither did all kings worship him; nor did he reign to the ends of the earth; nor did his enemies, falling before him, lick the dust. Nay, also, I venture to repeat what is written in the book of Kings as committed by him, how through a woman’s influence he worshipped the idols of Sidon, which those of the Gentiles who know God, the Maker of all things through Jesus the crucified, do not venture to do, but abide every torture and vengeance even to the extremity of death, rather than worship idols, or eat meat offered to idols.”

[34] Ἔτι δὲ καὶ πρὸς τὸ πεῖσαι ὑμᾶς ὅτι τῶν γραφῶν οὐδὲν συνήκατε, καὶ ἄλλου ψαλμοῦ τῷ Δαυεὶδ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος εἰρημένου ἀναμνήσομαι, ὃν εἰς Σολομῶνα, τὸν γενόμενον καὶ αὐτὸν βασιλέα ὑμῶν, εἰρῆσθαι λέγετε: εἰς δὲ τὸν Χριστὸν ἡμῶν καὶ αὐτὸς εἴρηται. ὑμεῖς δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ὁμωνύμων λέξεων ἑαυτοὺς ἐξαπατᾶτε. ὅπου γὰρ ὁ νόμος τοῦ κυρίου ἄμωμος εἴρηται, οὐχὶ τὸν μετ' ἐκεῖνον μέλλοντα ἀλλὰ τὸν διὰ Μωυσέως ἐξηγεῖσθε, τοῦ θεοῦ βοῶντος καινὸν νόμον καὶ καινὴν διαθήκην διαθήσεσθαι. καὶ ὅπου λέλεκται: Ὁ θεός, τὸ κρίμα σου τῷ βασιλεῖ δός, ἐπειδὴ βασιλεὺς Σολομὼν γέγονεν, εἰς αὐτὸν τὸν ψαλμὸν εἰρῆσθαί φατε, τῶν λόγων τοῦ ψαλμοῦ διαρρήδην κηρυσσόντων εἰς τὸν αἰώνιον βασιλέα, τοῦτ' ἔστιν εἰς τὸν Χριστόν, εἰρῆσθαι. ὁ γὰρ Χριστὸς βασιλεὺς καὶ ἱερεὺς καὶ θεὸς καὶ κύριος καὶ ἄγγελος καὶ ἄνθρωπος καὶ ἀρχιστράτηγος καὶ λίθος καὶ παιδίον γεννώμενον καὶ παθητὸς γενόμενος πρῶτον, εἶτα εἰς οὐρανὸν ἀνερχόμενος καὶ πάλιν παραγινόμενος μετὰ δόξης καὶ αἰώνιον τὴν βασιλείαν ἔχων κεκήρυκται, ὡς ἀπὸ πασῶν τῶν γραφῶν ἀποδείκνυμι. ἵνα δὲ καὶ ὃ εἶπον νοήσητε, τοὺς τοῦ ψαλμοῦ λόγους λέγω. εἰσὶ δ' οὗτοι: Ὁ θεός, τὸ κρίμα σου τῷ βασιλεῖ δὸς καὶ τὴν δικαιοσύνην σου τῷ υἱῷ τοῦ βασιλέως, κρίνειν τὸν λαόν σου ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ τοὺς πτωχούς σου ἐν κρίσει. ἀναλαβέτω τὰ ὄρη εἰρήνην τῷ λαῷ καὶ οἱ βουνοὶ δικαιοσύνην. κρινεῖ τοὺς πτωχοὺς τοῦ λαοῦ, καὶ σώσει τοὺς υἱοὺς τῶν πενήτων, καὶ ταπεινώσει συκοφάντην: καὶ συμπαραμενεῖ τῷ ἡλίῳ καὶ πρὸ τῆς σελήνης εἰς γενεὰς γενεῶν. καταβήσεται ὡς ὑετὸς ἐπὶ πόκον καὶ ὡσεὶ σταγὼν ἡ στάζουσα ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν. ἀνατελεῖ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις αὐτοῦ δικαιοσύνη, καὶ πλῆθος εἰρήνης ἕως οὗ ἀνταναιρεθῇ ἡ σελήνη. καὶ κατακυριεύσει ἀπὸ θαλάσσης ἕως θαλάσσης καὶ ἀπὸ ποταμῶν ἕως περάτων τῆς οἰκουμένης. ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ προπεσοῦνται Αἰθίοπες, καὶ οἱ ἐχθροὶ αὐτοῦ χοῦν λείξουσι. βασιλεῖς Θαρσεῖς καὶ νῆσοι δῶρα προσάξουσι, βασιλεῖς Ἀρράβων καὶ Σαββᾶ δῶρα προσάξουσι, καὶ προσκυνήσουσιν αὐτῷ πάντες οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς, καὶ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη δουλεύσουσιν αὐτῷ: ὅτι ἐρρύσατο πτωχὸν ἐκ δυνάστου, καὶ πένητα ᾧ οὐχ ὑπῆρχε βοηθός. φείσεται πτωχοῦ καὶ πένητος, καὶ ψυχὰς πενήτων σώσει: ἐκ τόκου καὶ ἐξ ἀδικίας λυτρώσεται τὰς ψυχὰς αὐτῶν, καὶ ἔντιμον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν. καὶ ζήσεται καὶ δοθήσεται αὐτῷ ἐκ τοῦ χρυσίου τῆς Ἀρραβίας, καὶ προσεύξονται διὰ παντὸς περὶ αὐτοῦ: ὅλην τὴν ἡμέραν εὐλογήσουσιν αὐτόν. καὶ ἔσται στήριγμα ἐν τῇ γῇ ἐπ' ἄκρων τῶν ὀρέων: ὑπεραρθήσεται ὑπὲρ τὸν Λίβανον ὁ καρπὸς αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐξανθήσουσιν ἐκ πόλεως ὡσεὶ χόρτος τῆς γῆς. ἔσται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ εὐλογημένον εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας: πρὸ τοῦ ἡλίου διαμένει. καὶ ἐνευλογηθήσονται ἐν αὐτῷ πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς: πάντα τὰ ἔθνη μακαριοῦσιν αὐτόν. εὐλογητὸς κύριος, ὁ θεὸς Ἰσραήλ, ὁ ποιῶν θαυμάσια μόνος, καὶ εὐλογημένον τὸ ὄνομα τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα καὶ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος: καὶ πληρωθήσεται τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ πᾶσα ἡ γῆ. γένοιτο, γένοιτο. καὶ ἐπὶ τέλει τοῦ ψαλμοῦ τούτου, οὗ ἔφην, γέγραπται: Ἐξέλιπον οἱ ὕμνοι Δαυείδ, υἱοῦ Ἰεσσαί. καὶ ὅτι μὲν βασιλεὺς ἐγένετο καὶ μέγας ὁ Σολομών, ἐφ' οὗ ὁ οἶκος Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐπικληθεὶς ἀνῳκοδομήθη, ἐπίσταμαι. ὅτι δὲ οὐδὲν τῶν ἐν τῷ ψαλμῷ εἰρημένων συνέβη αὐτῷ, φαίνεται. οὔτε γὰρ πάντες οἱ βασιλεῖς προσεκύνησαν αὐτῷ, οὔτε μέχρι τῶν περάτων τῆς οἰκουμένης ἐβασίλευσεν, οὔτε οἱ ἐχθροὶ αὐτοῦ ἔμπροσθεν αὐτοῦ πεσόντες χοῦν ἔλειξαν. ἀλλὰ καὶ τολμῶ λέγειν ἃ γέγραπται ἐν ταῖς Βασιλείαις ὑπ' αὐτοῦ πραχθέντα, ὅτι διὰ γυναῖκα ἐν Σιδῶνι εἰδωλολάτρει: ὅπερ οὐχ ὑπομένουσι πρᾶξαι οἱ ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν διὰ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ σταυρωθέντος ἐπιγνόντες τὸν ποιητὴν τῶν ὅλων θεόν, ἀλλὰ πᾶσαν αἰκίαν καὶ τιμωρίαν μέχρις ἐσχάτου θανάτου ὑπομένουσι περὶ τοῦ μήτε εἰδωλολατρῆσαι μήτε εἰδωλόθυτα φαγεῖν.