Dialogue of Justin, Philosopher and Martyr, with Trypho, a Jew

 Chapter I.—Introduction.

 Chapter II.—Justin describes his studies in philosophy.

 Chapter III.—Justin narrates the manner of his conversion.

 Chapter IV.—The soul of itself cannot see God.

 Chapter V.—The soul is not in its own nature immortal.

 Chapter VI.—These things were unknown to Plato and other philosophers.

 Chapter VII.—The knowledge of truth to be sought from the prophets alone.

 Chapter VIII.—Justin by his colloquy is kindled with love to Christ.

 Chapter IX.—The Christians have not believed groundless stories.

 Chapter X.—Trypho blames the Christians for this alone—the non-observance of the law.

 Chapter XI.—The law abrogated the New Testament promised and given by God.

 Chapter XII.—The Jews violate the eternal law, and interpret ill that of Moses.

 Chapter XIII.—Isaiah teaches that sins are forgiven through Christ’s blood.

 Chapter XIV.—Righteousness is not placed in Jewish rites, but in the conversion of the heart given in baptism by Christ.

 Chapter XV.—In what the true fasting consists.

 Chapter XVI.—Circumcision given as a sign, that the Jews might be driven away for their evil deeds done to Christ and the Christians.

 Chapter XVII.—The Jews sent persons through the whole earth to spread calumnies on Christians.

 Chapter XVIII.—Christians would observe the law, if they did not know why it was instituted.

 Chapter XIX.—Circumcision unknown before Abraham. The law was given by Moses on account of the hardness of their hearts.

 Chapter XX.—Why choice of meats was prescribed.

 Chapter XXI.—Sabbaths were instituted on account of the people’s sins, and not for a work of righteousness.

 Chapter XXII.—So also were sacrifices and oblations.

 Chapter XXIII.—The opinion of the Jews regarding the law does an injury to God.

 Chapter XXIV.—The Christians’ circumcision far more excellent.

 Chapter XXV.—The Jews boast in vain that they are sons of Abraham.

 Chapter XXVI.—No salvation to the Jews except through Christ.

 Chapter XXVII.—Why God taught the same things by the prophets as by Moses.

 Chapter XXVIII.—True righteousness is obtained by Christ.

 Chapter XXIX.—Christ is useless to those who observe the law.

 Chapter XXX.—Christians possess the true righteousness.

 Chapter XXXI.—If Christ’s power be now so great, how much greater at the second advent!

 Chapter XXXII.—Trypho objecting that Christ is described as glorious by Daniel, Justin distinguishes two advents.

 Chapter XXXIII.—Ps. cx. is not spoken of Hezekiah. He proves that Christ was first humble, then shall be glorious.

 Chapter XXXIV.—Nor does Ps. lxxii. apply to Solomon, whose faults Christians shudder at.

 Chapter XXXV.—Heretics confirm the Catholics in the faith.

 Chapter XXXVI.—He proves that Christ is called Lord of Hosts.

 Chapter XXXVII.—The same is proved from other Psalms.

 Chapter XXXVIII.—It is an annoyance to the Jew that Christ is said to be adored. Justin confirms it, however, from Ps. xlv.

 Chapter XXXIX.—The Jews hate the Christians who believe this. How great the distinction is between both!

 Chapter XL.—He returns to the Mosaic laws, and proves that they were figures of the things which pertain to Christ.

 Chapter XLI.—The oblation of fine flour was a figure of the Eucharist.

 Chapter XLII.—The bells on the priest’s robe were a figure of the apostles.

 Chapter XLIII.—He concludes that the law had an end in Christ, who was born of the Virgin.

 Chapter XLIV.—The Jews in vain promise themselves salvation, which cannot be obtained except through Christ.

 Chapter XLV.—Those who were righteous before and under the law shall be saved by Christ.

 Chapter XLVI.—Trypho asks whether a man who keeps the law even now will be saved. Justin proves that it contributes nothing to righteousness.

 Chapter XLVII.—Justin communicates with Christians who observe the law. Not a few Catholics do otherwise.

 Chapter XLVIII.—Before the divinity of Christ is proved, he [Trypho] demands that it be settled that He is Christ.

 Chapter XLIX.—To those who object that Elijah has not yet come, he replies that he is the precursor of the first advent.

 Chapter L.—It is proved from Isaiah that John is the precursor of Christ.

 Chapter LI.—It is proved that this prophecy has been fulfilled.

 Chapter LII.—Jacob predicted two advents of Christ.

 Chapter LIII.—Jacob predicted that Christ would ride on an ass, and Zechariah confirms it.

 Chapter LIV.—What the blood of the grape signifies.

 Chapter LV.—Trypho asks that Christ be proved God, but without metaphor. Justin promises to do so.

 Chapter LVI.—God who appeared to Moses is distinguished from God the Father.

 Chapter LVII.—The Jew objects, why is He said to have eaten, if He be God? Answer of Justin.

 Chapter LVIII.—The same is proved from the visions which appeared to Jacob.

 Chapter LIX.—God distinct from the Father conversed with Moses.

 Chapter LX.—Opinions of the Jews with regard to Him who appeared in the bush.

 Chapter LXI—Wisdom is begotten of the Father, as fire from fire.

 Chapter LXII.—The words “Let Us make man” agree with the testimony of Proverbs.

 Chapter LXIII.—It is proved that this God was incarnate.

 Chapter LXIV.—Justin adduces other proofs to the Jew, who denies that he needs this Christ.

 Chapter LXV.—The Jew objects that God does not give His glory to another. Justin explains the passage.

 Chapter LXVI.—He proves from Isaiah that God was born from a virgin.

 Chapter LXVII.—Trypho compares Jesus with Perseus and would prefer [to say] that He was elected [to be Christ] on account of observance of the law. J

 Chapter LXVIII.—He complains of the obstinacy of Trypho he answers his objection he convicts the Jews of bad faith.

 Chapter LXIX.—The devil, since he emulates the truth, has invented fables about Bacchus, Hercules, and Æsculapius.

 Chapter LXX.—So also the mysteries of Mithras are distorted from the prophecies of Daniel and Isaiah.

 Chapter LXXI.—The Jews reject the interpretation of the LXX., from which, moreover, they have taken away some passages.

 Chapter LXXII.—Passages have been removed by the Jews from Esdras and Jeremiah.

 Chapter LXXIII.—[The words] “From the wood” have been cut out of Ps. xcvi.

 Chapter LXXIV.—The beginning of Ps. xcvi. is attributed to the Father [by Trypho]. But [it refers] to Christ by these words: “Tell ye among the nation

 Chapter LXXV.—It is proved that Jesus was the name of God in the book of Exodus.

 Chapter LXXVI.—From other passages the same majesty and government of Christ are proved.

 Chapter LXXVII.—He returns to explain the prophecy of Isaiah.

 Chapter LXXVIII.—He proves that this prophecy harmonizes with Christ alone, from what is afterwards written.

 Chapter LXXIX.—He proves against Trypho that the wicked angels have revolted from God.

 Chapter LXXX.—The opinion of Justin with regard to the reign of a thousand years. Several Catholics reject it.

 Chapter LXXXI.—He endeavours to prove this opinion from Isaiah and the Apocalypse.

 Chapter LXXXII.—The prophetical gifts of the Jews were transferred to the Christians.

 Chapter LXXXIII.—It is proved that the Psalm, “The Lord said to My Lord,” etc., does not suit Hezekiah.

 Chapter LXXXIV.—That prophecy, “Behold, a virgin,” etc., suits Christ alone.

 Chapter LXXXV.—He proves that Christ is the Lord of Hosts from Ps. xxiv., and from his authority over demons.

 Chapter LXXXVI.—There are various figures in the Old Testament of the wood of the cross by which Christ reigned.

 Chapter LXXXVII.—Trypho maintains in objection these words: “And shall rest on Him,” etc. They are explained by Justin.

 Chapter LXXXVIII.—Christ has not received the Holy Spirit on account of poverty.

 Chapter LXXXIX.—The cross alone is offensive to Trypho on account of the curse, yet it proves that Jesus is Christ.

 Chapter XC.—The stretched-out hands of Moses signified beforehand the cross.

 Chapter XCI.—The cross was foretold in the blessings of Joseph, and in the serpent that was lifted up.

 Chapter XCII.—Unless the scriptures be understood through God’s great grace, God will not appear to have taught always the same righteousness.

 Chapter XCIII.—The same kind of righteousness is bestowed on all. Christ comprehends it in two precepts.

 Chapter XCIV.—In what sense he who hangs on a tree is cursed.

 Chapter XCV.—Christ took upon Himself the curse due to us.

 Chapter XCVI.—That curse was a prediction of the things which the Jews would do.

 Chapter XCVII.—Other predictions of the cross of Christ.

 Chapter XCVIII.—Predictions of Christ in Ps. xxii.

 Chapter XCIX.—In the commencement of the Psalm are Christ’s dying words.

 Chapter C.—In what sense Christ is [called] Jacob, and Israel, and Son of Man.

 Chapter CI.—Christ refers all things to the Father

 Chapter CII.—The prediction of the events which happened to Christ when He was born. Why God permitted it.

 Chapter CIII.—The Pharisees are the bulls: the roaring lion is Herod or the devil.

 Chapter CIV.—Circumstances of Christ’s death are predicted in this Psalm.

 Chapter CV.—The Psalm also predicts the crucifixion and the subject of the last prayers of Christ on Earth.

 Chapter CVI.—Christ’s resurrection is foretold in the conclusion of the Psalm.

 Chapter CVII.—The same is taught from the history of Jonah.

 Chapter CVIII.—The resurrection of Christ did not convert the Jews. But through the whole world they have sent men to accuse Christ.

 Chapter CIX.—The conversion of the Gentiles has been predicted by Micah.

 Chapter CX.—A portion of the prophecy already fulfilled in the Christians: the rest shall be fulfilled at the second advent.

 Chapter CXI.—The two advents were signified by the two goats. Other figures of the first advent, in which the Gentiles are freed by the blood of Chris

 Chapter CXII.—The Jews expound these signs jejunely and feebly, and take up their attention only with insignificant matters.

 Chapter CXIII.—Joshua was a figure of Christ.

 Chapter CXIV.—Some rules for discerning what is said about Christ. The circumcision of the Jews is very different from that which Christians receive.

 Chapter CXV.—Prediction about the Christians in Zechariah. The malignant way which the Jews have in disputations.

 Chapter CXVI.—It is shown how this prophecy suits the Christians.

 Chapter CXVII.—Malachi’s prophecy concerning the sacrifices of the Christians. It cannot be taken as referring to the prayers of Jews of the dispersio

 Chapter CXVIII.—He exhorts to repentance before Christ comes in whom Christians, since they believe, are far more religious than Jews.

 Chapter CXIX.—Christians are the holy people promised to Abraham. They have been called like Abraham.

 Chapter CXX.—Christians were promised to Isaac, Jacob, and Judah.

 Chapter CXXI.—From the fact that the Gentiles believe in Jesus, it is evident that He is Christ.

 Chapter CXXII.—The Jews understand this of the proselytes without reason.

 Chapter CXXIII.—Ridiculous interpretations of the Jews. Christians are the true Israel.

 Chapter CXXIV.—Christians are the sons of God.

 Chapter CXXV.—He explains what force the word Israel has, and how it suits Christ.

 Chapter CXXVI.—The various names of Christ according to both natures. It is shown that He is God, and appeared to the patriarchs.

 Chapter CXXVII.—These passages of Scripture do not apply to the Father, but to the Word.

 Chapter CXXVIII.—The Word is sent not as an inanimate power, but as a person begotten of the Father’s substance.

 Chapter CXXIX.—That is confirmed from other passages of Scripture.

 Chapter CXXX.—He returns to the conversion of the Gentiles, and shows that it was foretold.

 Chapter CXXXI.—How much more faithful to God the Gentiles are who are converted to Christ than the Jews.

 Chapter CXXXII.—How great the power was of the name of Jesus in the Old Testament.

 Chapter CXXXIII.—The hard-heartedness of the Jews, for whom the Christians pray.

 Chapter CXXXIV.—The marriages of Jacob are a figure of the Church.

 Chapter CXXXV.—Christ is king of Israel, and Christians are the Israelitic race.

 Chapter CXXXVI.—The Jews, in rejecting Christ, rejected God who sent him.

 Chapter CXXXVII.—He exhorts the Jews to be converted.

 Chapter CXXXVIII.—Noah is a figure of Christ, who has regenerated us by water, and faith, and wood: [i.e., the cross .]

 Chapter CXXXIX.—The blessings, and also the curse, pronounced by Noah were prophecies of the future.

 Chapter CXL.—In Christ all are free. The Jews hope for salvation in vain because they are sons of Abraham.

 Chapter CXLI.—Free-will in men and angels.

 Chapter CXLII.—The Jews return thanks, and leave Justin.

Chapter XCII.—Unless the scriptures be understood through God’s great grace, God will not appear to have taught always the same righteousness.

“Unless, therefore, a man by God’s great grace receives the power to understand what has been said and done by the prophets, the appearance of being able to repeat the words or the deeds will not profit him, if he cannot explain the argument of them. And will they not assuredly appear contemptible to many, since they are related by those who understood them not? For if one should wish to ask you why, since Enoch, Noah with his sons, and all others in similar circumstances, who neither were circumcised nor kept the Sabbath, pleased God, God demanded by other leaders, and by the giving of the law after the lapse of so many generations, that those who lived between the times of Abraham and of Moses be justified by circumcision, and that those who lived after Moses be justified by circumcision and the other ordinances—to wit, the Sabbath, and sacrifices, and libations,360    Or, “ashes,” σποδῶν for σπονδῶν. and offerings; [God will be slandered] unless you show, as I have already said, that God who foreknew was aware that your nation would deserve expulsion from Jerusalem, and that none would be permitted to enter into it. (For361    We have adopted the parenthesis inserted by Maranus. Langus would insert before it, τί ἕξετε ἀποκρίνασθαι; “What will you have to answer?” you are not distinguished in any other way than by the fleshly circumcision, as I remarked previously. For Abraham was declared by God to be righteous, not on account of circumcision, but on account of faith. For before he was circumcised the following statement was made regarding him: ‘Abraham believed God, and it was accounted unto him for righteousness.’362    Gen. xv. 6. And we, therefore, in the uncircumcision of our flesh, believing God through Christ, and having that circumcision which is of advantage to us who have acquired it —namely, that of the heart—we hope to appear righteous before and well-pleasing to God: since already we have received His testimony through the words of the prophets.) [And, further, God will be slandered unless you show] that you were commanded to observe the Sabbath, and to present offerings, and that the Lord submitted to have a place called by the name of God, in order that, as has been said, you might not become impious and godless by worshipping idols and forgetting God, as indeed you do always appear to have been. (Now, that God enjoined the ordinances of Sabbaths and offerings for these reasons, I have proved in what I previously remarked; but for the sake of those who came to-day, I wish to repeat nearly the whole.) For if this is not the case, God will be slandered,363    We have supplied this phrase twice above. as having no foreknowledge, and as not teaching all men to know and to do the same acts of righteousness (for many generations of men appear to have existed before Moses); and the Scripture is not true which affirms that ‘God is true and righteous, and all His ways are judgments, and there is no unrighteousness in him.’ But since the Scripture is true, God is always willing that such even as you be neither foolish nor lovers of yourselves, in order that you may obtain the salvation of Christ,364    Literally, salvation along with Christ, that is, salvation by the aid of Christ. who pleased God, and received testimony from Him, as I have already said, by alleging proof from the holy words of prophecy.

[92] Εἰ οὖν τις μὴ μετὰ μεγάλης χάριτος τῆς παρὰ θεοῦ λάβοι νοῆσαι τὰ εἰρημένα καὶ γεγενημένα ὑπὸ τῶν προφητῶν, οὐδὲν αὐτὸν ὀνήσει τὸ τὰς ῥήσεις δοκεῖν λέγειν ἢ τὰ γεγενημένα, εἰ μὴ λόγον ἔχει καὶ περὶ αὐτῶν ἀποδιδόναι. ἀλλὰ μήτι γε καὶ εὐκαταφρόνητα δόξει τοῖς πολλοῖς ὑπὸ τῶν μὴ νοούντων αὐτὰ λεγόμενα; εἰ γάρ τις ἐξετάζειν βούλοιτο ὑμᾶς, ὅτι Ἑνὼχ καὶ Νῶε ἅμα τοῖς τέκνοις, καὶ εἴ τινες ἄλλοι τοιοῦτοι γεγόνασι, μήτε ἐν περιτομῇ γενόμενοι μήτε σαββατίσαντες εὐηρέστησαν τῷ θεῷ, τίς ἡ αἰτία τοῦ δι' ἄλλων προστατῶν καὶ νομοθεσίας μετὰ τοσαύτας γενεὰς ἀξιοῦν τὸν θεὸν δικαιοῦσθαι τοὺς μὲν ἀπὸ Ἀβραὰμ μέχρι Μωυσέως διὰ περιτομῆς, τοὺς δὲ ἀπὸ Μωυσέως καὶ διὰ περιτομῆς καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἐντολῶν, τοῦτ' ἔστι σαββάτου καὶ θυσιῶν καὶ σπονδῶν καὶ προσφορῶν, εἰ μή, ὡς προείρηται ὑπ' ἐμοῦ, ἀποδείξετε ὅτι διὰ τὸ τὸν θεόν, προγνώστην ὄντα, ἐγνωκέναι ἄξιον γενησόμενον τὸν λαὸν ὑμῶν ἐκβληθῆναι ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ μηδένα ἐπιτρέπεσθαι εἰσελθεῖν ἐκεῖ; οὐδαμόθεν γὰρ ἀλλαχόθεν ἐστὲ γνωριζόμενοι, ὡς προέφην, εἰ μὴ ἀπὸ τῆς περὶ τὴν σάρκα περιτομῆς. οὐδὲ γὰρ Ἀβραὰμ διὰ τὴν περιτομὴν δίκαιος εἶναι ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐμαρτυρήθη, ἀλλὰ διὰ τὴν πίστιν: πρὸ τοῦ γὰρ περιτμηθῆναι αὐτὸν εἴρηται περὶ αὐτοῦ οὕτως: Ἐπίστευσε δὲ Ἀβραὰμ τῷ θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην. Καὶ ἡμεῖς οὖν, ἐν ἀκροβυστίᾳ τῆς σαρκὸς ἡμῶν πιστεύοντες τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ περιτομὴν ἔχοντες τὴν ὠφελοῦσαν ἡμᾶς τοὺς κεκτημένους, τοῦτ' ἔστι τῆς καρδίας, δίκαιοι καὶ εὐάρεστοι τῷ θεῷ ἐλπίζομεν φανῆναι, ἐπειδὴ καὶ ἤδη μεμαρτυρήμεθα διὰ τῶν προφητικῶν λόγων ὑπ' αὐτοῦ. τὸ δὲ σαββατίζειν καὶ τὰς προσφορὰς φέρειν κελευσθῆναι ὑμᾶς, καὶ τόπον εἰς ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπικληθῆναι ἀνασχέσθαι τὸν κύριον, ἵνα, ὡς εἴρηται, μὴ εἰδωλολατροῦντες καὶ ἀμνημονοῦντες τοῦ θεοῦ ἀσεβεῖς καὶ ἄθεοι γένησθε, ὡς ἀεὶ φαίνεσθε γεγενημένοι. καὶ ὅτι διὰ ταῦτα ἐνετέταλτο ὁ θεὸς τὰς περὶ σαββάτων καὶ προσφορῶν ἐντολάς, προαποδέδεικταί μοι διὰ τῶν προειρημένων: διὰ δὲ τοὺς σήμερον ἐλθόντας καὶ τὰ αὐτὰ σχεδὸν πάντα βούλομαι ἀναλαμβάνειν. ἐπεί, εἰ μὴ τοῦτό ἐστι, συκοφαντηθήσεται ὁ θεός, ὡς μήτε πρόγνωσιν ἔχων μήτε τὰ αὐτὰ δίκαια πάντας διδάσκων καὶ εἰδέναι καὶ πράττειν (πολλαὶ γὰρ γενεαὶ ἀνθρώπων πρὸ Μωυσέως φαίνονται γεγενημέναι), καὶ οὐκ ἔστι λόγος ὁ λέγων ὡς ἀληθὴς ὁ θεὸς καὶ δίκαιος καὶ πᾶσαι αἱ ὁδοὶ αὐτοῦ κρίσεις, καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἀδικία ἐν αὐτῷ. ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἀληθὴς ὁ λόγος, καὶ θεὸς ὑμᾶς τοιούτους μὴ εἶναι ἀσυνέτους καὶ φιλαύτους ἀεὶ βούλεται, ὅπως σωθῆτε μετὰ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, τοῦ εὐαρεστοῦντος τῷ θεῷ καὶ μεμαρτυρημένου, ὡς προέφην διὰ τῶν ἁγίων προφητικῶν λόγων τὴν ἀπόδειξιν ποιήσας.