Dialogue of Justin, Philosopher and Martyr, with Trypho, a Jew

 Chapter I.—Introduction.

 Chapter II.—Justin describes his studies in philosophy.

 Chapter III.—Justin narrates the manner of his conversion.

 Chapter IV.—The soul of itself cannot see God.

 Chapter V.—The soul is not in its own nature immortal.

 Chapter VI.—These things were unknown to Plato and other philosophers.

 Chapter VII.—The knowledge of truth to be sought from the prophets alone.

 Chapter VIII.—Justin by his colloquy is kindled with love to Christ.

 Chapter IX.—The Christians have not believed groundless stories.

 Chapter X.—Trypho blames the Christians for this alone—the non-observance of the law.

 Chapter XI.—The law abrogated the New Testament promised and given by God.

 Chapter XII.—The Jews violate the eternal law, and interpret ill that of Moses.

 Chapter XIII.—Isaiah teaches that sins are forgiven through Christ’s blood.

 Chapter XIV.—Righteousness is not placed in Jewish rites, but in the conversion of the heart given in baptism by Christ.

 Chapter XV.—In what the true fasting consists.

 Chapter XVI.—Circumcision given as a sign, that the Jews might be driven away for their evil deeds done to Christ and the Christians.

 Chapter XVII.—The Jews sent persons through the whole earth to spread calumnies on Christians.

 Chapter XVIII.—Christians would observe the law, if they did not know why it was instituted.

 Chapter XIX.—Circumcision unknown before Abraham. The law was given by Moses on account of the hardness of their hearts.

 Chapter XX.—Why choice of meats was prescribed.

 Chapter XXI.—Sabbaths were instituted on account of the people’s sins, and not for a work of righteousness.

 Chapter XXII.—So also were sacrifices and oblations.

 Chapter XXIII.—The opinion of the Jews regarding the law does an injury to God.

 Chapter XXIV.—The Christians’ circumcision far more excellent.

 Chapter XXV.—The Jews boast in vain that they are sons of Abraham.

 Chapter XXVI.—No salvation to the Jews except through Christ.

 Chapter XXVII.—Why God taught the same things by the prophets as by Moses.

 Chapter XXVIII.—True righteousness is obtained by Christ.

 Chapter XXIX.—Christ is useless to those who observe the law.

 Chapter XXX.—Christians possess the true righteousness.

 Chapter XXXI.—If Christ’s power be now so great, how much greater at the second advent!

 Chapter XXXII.—Trypho objecting that Christ is described as glorious by Daniel, Justin distinguishes two advents.

 Chapter XXXIII.—Ps. cx. is not spoken of Hezekiah. He proves that Christ was first humble, then shall be glorious.

 Chapter XXXIV.—Nor does Ps. lxxii. apply to Solomon, whose faults Christians shudder at.

 Chapter XXXV.—Heretics confirm the Catholics in the faith.

 Chapter XXXVI.—He proves that Christ is called Lord of Hosts.

 Chapter XXXVII.—The same is proved from other Psalms.

 Chapter XXXVIII.—It is an annoyance to the Jew that Christ is said to be adored. Justin confirms it, however, from Ps. xlv.

 Chapter XXXIX.—The Jews hate the Christians who believe this. How great the distinction is between both!

 Chapter XL.—He returns to the Mosaic laws, and proves that they were figures of the things which pertain to Christ.

 Chapter XLI.—The oblation of fine flour was a figure of the Eucharist.

 Chapter XLII.—The bells on the priest’s robe were a figure of the apostles.

 Chapter XLIII.—He concludes that the law had an end in Christ, who was born of the Virgin.

 Chapter XLIV.—The Jews in vain promise themselves salvation, which cannot be obtained except through Christ.

 Chapter XLV.—Those who were righteous before and under the law shall be saved by Christ.

 Chapter XLVI.—Trypho asks whether a man who keeps the law even now will be saved. Justin proves that it contributes nothing to righteousness.

 Chapter XLVII.—Justin communicates with Christians who observe the law. Not a few Catholics do otherwise.

 Chapter XLVIII.—Before the divinity of Christ is proved, he [Trypho] demands that it be settled that He is Christ.

 Chapter XLIX.—To those who object that Elijah has not yet come, he replies that he is the precursor of the first advent.

 Chapter L.—It is proved from Isaiah that John is the precursor of Christ.

 Chapter LI.—It is proved that this prophecy has been fulfilled.

 Chapter LII.—Jacob predicted two advents of Christ.

 Chapter LIII.—Jacob predicted that Christ would ride on an ass, and Zechariah confirms it.

 Chapter LIV.—What the blood of the grape signifies.

 Chapter LV.—Trypho asks that Christ be proved God, but without metaphor. Justin promises to do so.

 Chapter LVI.—God who appeared to Moses is distinguished from God the Father.

 Chapter LVII.—The Jew objects, why is He said to have eaten, if He be God? Answer of Justin.

 Chapter LVIII.—The same is proved from the visions which appeared to Jacob.

 Chapter LIX.—God distinct from the Father conversed with Moses.

 Chapter LX.—Opinions of the Jews with regard to Him who appeared in the bush.

 Chapter LXI—Wisdom is begotten of the Father, as fire from fire.

 Chapter LXII.—The words “Let Us make man” agree with the testimony of Proverbs.

 Chapter LXIII.—It is proved that this God was incarnate.

 Chapter LXIV.—Justin adduces other proofs to the Jew, who denies that he needs this Christ.

 Chapter LXV.—The Jew objects that God does not give His glory to another. Justin explains the passage.

 Chapter LXVI.—He proves from Isaiah that God was born from a virgin.

 Chapter LXVII.—Trypho compares Jesus with Perseus and would prefer [to say] that He was elected [to be Christ] on account of observance of the law. J

 Chapter LXVIII.—He complains of the obstinacy of Trypho he answers his objection he convicts the Jews of bad faith.

 Chapter LXIX.—The devil, since he emulates the truth, has invented fables about Bacchus, Hercules, and Æsculapius.

 Chapter LXX.—So also the mysteries of Mithras are distorted from the prophecies of Daniel and Isaiah.

 Chapter LXXI.—The Jews reject the interpretation of the LXX., from which, moreover, they have taken away some passages.

 Chapter LXXII.—Passages have been removed by the Jews from Esdras and Jeremiah.

 Chapter LXXIII.—[The words] “From the wood” have been cut out of Ps. xcvi.

 Chapter LXXIV.—The beginning of Ps. xcvi. is attributed to the Father [by Trypho]. But [it refers] to Christ by these words: “Tell ye among the nation

 Chapter LXXV.—It is proved that Jesus was the name of God in the book of Exodus.

 Chapter LXXVI.—From other passages the same majesty and government of Christ are proved.

 Chapter LXXVII.—He returns to explain the prophecy of Isaiah.

 Chapter LXXVIII.—He proves that this prophecy harmonizes with Christ alone, from what is afterwards written.

 Chapter LXXIX.—He proves against Trypho that the wicked angels have revolted from God.

 Chapter LXXX.—The opinion of Justin with regard to the reign of a thousand years. Several Catholics reject it.

 Chapter LXXXI.—He endeavours to prove this opinion from Isaiah and the Apocalypse.

 Chapter LXXXII.—The prophetical gifts of the Jews were transferred to the Christians.

 Chapter LXXXIII.—It is proved that the Psalm, “The Lord said to My Lord,” etc., does not suit Hezekiah.

 Chapter LXXXIV.—That prophecy, “Behold, a virgin,” etc., suits Christ alone.

 Chapter LXXXV.—He proves that Christ is the Lord of Hosts from Ps. xxiv., and from his authority over demons.

 Chapter LXXXVI.—There are various figures in the Old Testament of the wood of the cross by which Christ reigned.

 Chapter LXXXVII.—Trypho maintains in objection these words: “And shall rest on Him,” etc. They are explained by Justin.

 Chapter LXXXVIII.—Christ has not received the Holy Spirit on account of poverty.

 Chapter LXXXIX.—The cross alone is offensive to Trypho on account of the curse, yet it proves that Jesus is Christ.

 Chapter XC.—The stretched-out hands of Moses signified beforehand the cross.

 Chapter XCI.—The cross was foretold in the blessings of Joseph, and in the serpent that was lifted up.

 Chapter XCII.—Unless the scriptures be understood through God’s great grace, God will not appear to have taught always the same righteousness.

 Chapter XCIII.—The same kind of righteousness is bestowed on all. Christ comprehends it in two precepts.

 Chapter XCIV.—In what sense he who hangs on a tree is cursed.

 Chapter XCV.—Christ took upon Himself the curse due to us.

 Chapter XCVI.—That curse was a prediction of the things which the Jews would do.

 Chapter XCVII.—Other predictions of the cross of Christ.

 Chapter XCVIII.—Predictions of Christ in Ps. xxii.

 Chapter XCIX.—In the commencement of the Psalm are Christ’s dying words.

 Chapter C.—In what sense Christ is [called] Jacob, and Israel, and Son of Man.

 Chapter CI.—Christ refers all things to the Father

 Chapter CII.—The prediction of the events which happened to Christ when He was born. Why God permitted it.

 Chapter CIII.—The Pharisees are the bulls: the roaring lion is Herod or the devil.

 Chapter CIV.—Circumstances of Christ’s death are predicted in this Psalm.

 Chapter CV.—The Psalm also predicts the crucifixion and the subject of the last prayers of Christ on Earth.

 Chapter CVI.—Christ’s resurrection is foretold in the conclusion of the Psalm.

 Chapter CVII.—The same is taught from the history of Jonah.

 Chapter CVIII.—The resurrection of Christ did not convert the Jews. But through the whole world they have sent men to accuse Christ.

 Chapter CIX.—The conversion of the Gentiles has been predicted by Micah.

 Chapter CX.—A portion of the prophecy already fulfilled in the Christians: the rest shall be fulfilled at the second advent.

 Chapter CXI.—The two advents were signified by the two goats. Other figures of the first advent, in which the Gentiles are freed by the blood of Chris

 Chapter CXII.—The Jews expound these signs jejunely and feebly, and take up their attention only with insignificant matters.

 Chapter CXIII.—Joshua was a figure of Christ.

 Chapter CXIV.—Some rules for discerning what is said about Christ. The circumcision of the Jews is very different from that which Christians receive.

 Chapter CXV.—Prediction about the Christians in Zechariah. The malignant way which the Jews have in disputations.

 Chapter CXVI.—It is shown how this prophecy suits the Christians.

 Chapter CXVII.—Malachi’s prophecy concerning the sacrifices of the Christians. It cannot be taken as referring to the prayers of Jews of the dispersio

 Chapter CXVIII.—He exhorts to repentance before Christ comes in whom Christians, since they believe, are far more religious than Jews.

 Chapter CXIX.—Christians are the holy people promised to Abraham. They have been called like Abraham.

 Chapter CXX.—Christians were promised to Isaac, Jacob, and Judah.

 Chapter CXXI.—From the fact that the Gentiles believe in Jesus, it is evident that He is Christ.

 Chapter CXXII.—The Jews understand this of the proselytes without reason.

 Chapter CXXIII.—Ridiculous interpretations of the Jews. Christians are the true Israel.

 Chapter CXXIV.—Christians are the sons of God.

 Chapter CXXV.—He explains what force the word Israel has, and how it suits Christ.

 Chapter CXXVI.—The various names of Christ according to both natures. It is shown that He is God, and appeared to the patriarchs.

 Chapter CXXVII.—These passages of Scripture do not apply to the Father, but to the Word.

 Chapter CXXVIII.—The Word is sent not as an inanimate power, but as a person begotten of the Father’s substance.

 Chapter CXXIX.—That is confirmed from other passages of Scripture.

 Chapter CXXX.—He returns to the conversion of the Gentiles, and shows that it was foretold.

 Chapter CXXXI.—How much more faithful to God the Gentiles are who are converted to Christ than the Jews.

 Chapter CXXXII.—How great the power was of the name of Jesus in the Old Testament.

 Chapter CXXXIII.—The hard-heartedness of the Jews, for whom the Christians pray.

 Chapter CXXXIV.—The marriages of Jacob are a figure of the Church.

 Chapter CXXXV.—Christ is king of Israel, and Christians are the Israelitic race.

 Chapter CXXXVI.—The Jews, in rejecting Christ, rejected God who sent him.

 Chapter CXXXVII.—He exhorts the Jews to be converted.

 Chapter CXXXVIII.—Noah is a figure of Christ, who has regenerated us by water, and faith, and wood: [i.e., the cross .]

 Chapter CXXXIX.—The blessings, and also the curse, pronounced by Noah were prophecies of the future.

 Chapter CXL.—In Christ all are free. The Jews hope for salvation in vain because they are sons of Abraham.

 Chapter CXLI.—Free-will in men and angels.

 Chapter CXLII.—The Jews return thanks, and leave Justin.

Chapter III.—Justin narrates the manner of his conversion.

“And while I was thus disposed, when I wished at one period to be filled with great quietness, and to shun the path of men, I used to go into a certain field not far from the sea. And when I was near that spot one day, which having reached I purposed to be by myself, a certain old man, by no means contemptible in appearance, exhibiting meek and venerable manners, followed me at a little distance. And when I turned round to him, having halted, I fixed my eyes rather keenly on him.

“And he said, ‘Do you know me?’

“I replied in the negative.

“ ‘Why, then,’ said he to me, ‘do you so look at me?’

“ ‘I am astonished,’ I said, ‘because you have chanced to be in my company in the same place; for I had not expected to see any man here.’

“And he says to me, ‘I am concerned about some of my household. These are gone away from me; and therefore have I come to make personal search for them, if, perhaps, they shall make their appearance somewhere. But why are you here?’ said he to me.

“ ‘I delight,’ said I, ‘in such walks, where my attention is not distracted, for converse with myself is uninterrupted; and such places are most fit for philology.’13    Philology, used here to denote the exercise of reason.

“ ‘Are you, then, a philologian,’14    Philology, used here to denote the exercise of speech. The two-fold use of λόγος— oratio and ratio—ought to be kept in view. The old man uses it in the former, Justin in the latter, sense. said he, ‘but no lover of deeds or of truth? and do you not aim at being a practical man so much as being a sophist?’

“ ‘What greater work,’ said I, ‘could one accomplish than this, to show the reason which governs all, and having laid hold of it, and being mounted upon it, to look down on the errors of others, and their pursuits? But without philosophy and right reason, prudence would not be present to any man. Wherefore it is necessary for every man to philosophize, and to esteem this the greatest and most honourable work; but other things only of second-rate or third-rate importance, though, indeed, if they be made to depend on philosophy, they are of moderate value, and worthy of acceptance; but deprived of it, and not accompanying it, they are vulgar and coarse to those who pursue them.’

“ ‘Does philosophy, then, make happiness?’ said he, interrupting.

“ ‘Assuredly,’ I said, ‘and it alone.’

“ ‘What, then, is philosophy?’ he says; ‘and what is happiness? Pray tell me, unless something hinders you from saying.’

“ ‘Philosophy, then,’ said I, ‘is the knowledge of that which really exists, and a clear perception of the truth; and happiness is the reward of such knowledge and wisdom.’

“ ‘But what do you call God?’ said he.

“ ‘That which always maintains the same nature, and in the same manner, and is the cause of all other things —that, indeed, is God.’ So I answered him; and he listened to me with pleasure, and thus again interrogated me:—

“ ‘Is not knowledge a term common to different matters? For in arts of all kinds, he who knows any one of them is called a skilful man in the art of generalship, or of ruling, or of healing equally. But in divine and human affairs it is not so. Is there a knowledge which affords understanding of human and divine things, and then a thorough acquaintance with the divinity and the righteousness of them?’

“ ‘Assuredly,’ I replied.

“ ‘What, then? Is it in the same way we know man and God, as we know music, and arithmetic, and astronomy, or any other similar branch?’

“ ‘By no means,’ I replied.

“ ‘You have not answered me correctly, then,’ he said; ‘for some [branches of knowledge] come to us by learning, or by some employment, while of others we have knowledge by sight. Now, if one were to tell you that there exists in India an animal with a nature unlike all others, but of such and such a kind, multiform and various, you would not know it before you saw it; but neither would you be competent to give any account of it, unless you should hear from one who had seen it.’

“ ‘Certainly not,’ I said.

“ ‘How then,’ he said, ‘should the philosophers judge correctly about God, or speak any truth, when they have no knowledge of Him, having neither seen Him at any time, nor heard Him?’

“ ‘But, father,’ said I, ‘the Deity cannot be seen merely by the eyes, as other living beings can, but is discernible to the mind alone, as Plato says; and I believe him.’

[3] Καί μου οὕτως διακειμένου ἐπεὶ ἔδοξέ ποτε πολλῆς ἠρεμίας ἐμφορηθῆναι καὶ τὸν τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀλεεῖναι πάτον, ἐπορευόμην εἴς τι χωρίον οὐ μακρὰν θαλάσσης. πλησίον δέ μου γενομένου ἐκείνου τοῦ τόπου, ἔνθα ἔμελλον ἀφικόμενος πρὸς ἐμαυτῷ ἔσεσθαι, παλαιός τις πρεσβύτης, ἰδέσθαι οὐκ εὐκαταφρόνητος, πρᾶον καὶ σεμνὸν ἦθος ἐμφαίνων, ὀλίγον ἀποδέων μου παρείπετο. ὡς δὲ ἐπεστράφην εἰς αὐτόν, ὑποστὰς ἐνητένισα δριμύτερον αὐτῷ. Καὶ ὅς: Γνωρίζεις με; ἔφη. Ἠρνησάμην ἐγώ. Τί οὖν, μοι ἔφη, οὕτως με κατανοεῖς; Θαυμάζω, ἔφην, ὅτι ἔτυχες ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ μοι γενέσθαι: οὐ γὰρ προσεδόκησα ὄψεσθαί τινα ἀνδρῶν ἐνθάδε. Ὁ δέ: Οἰκείων τινῶν, φησί μοι, πεφρόντικα. οὗτοι δέ μοί εἰσιν ἀπόδημοι: ἔρχομαι οὖν καὶ αὐτὸς σκοπήσων τὰ περὶ αὐτούς, εἰ ἄρα φανήσονταί ποθεν. σὺ δὲ τί ἐνθάδε; ἐμοὶ ἐκεῖνος. Χαίρω, ἔφην, ταῖς τοιαύταις διατριβαῖς: ἀνεμπόδιστος γάρ μοι ὁ διάλογος πρὸς ἐμαυτὸν γίνεται, [μὴ ἐναντία δρώσαις ὡσανεί,] φιλολογίᾳ τε ἀνυτικώτατά ἐστι τὰ τοιάδε χωρία. Φιλόλογος οὖν τις εἶ σύ, ἔφη, φιλεργὸς δὲ οὐδαμῶς οὐδὲ φιλαλήθης, οὐδὲ πειρᾷ πρακτικὸς εἶναι μᾶλλον ἢ σοφιστής; Τί δ' ἄν, ἔφην ἐγώ, τούτου μεῖζον ἀγαθὸν ἄν τις ἐργάσαιτο, τοῦ δεῖξαι μὲν τὸν λόγον ἡγεμονεύοντα πάντων, συλλαβόντα δὲ καὶ ἐπ' αὐτῷ ὀχούμενον καθορᾶν τὴν τῶν ἄλλων πλάνην καὶ τὰ ἐκείνων ἐπιτηδεύματα, ὡς οὐδὲν ὑγιὲς δρῶσιν οὐδὲ θεῷ φίλον; ἄνευ δὲ φιλοσοφίας καὶ ὀρθοῦ λόγου οὐκ ἄν τῳ παρείη φρόνησις. διὸ χρὴ πάντα ἄνθρωπον φιλοσοφεῖν καὶ τοῦτο μέγιστον καὶ τιμιώτατον ἔργον ἡγεῖσθαι, τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ δεύτερα καὶ τρίτα, καὶ φιλοσοφίας μὲν ἀπηρτημένα μέτρια καὶ ἀποδοχῆς ἄξια, στερηθέντα δὲ ταύτης καὶ μὴ παρεπομένης τοῖς μεταχειριζομένοις αὐτὰ φορτικὰ καὶ βάναυσα. Ἦ οὖν φιλοσοφία εὐδαιμονίαν ποιεῖ; ἔφη ὑποτυχὼν ἐκεῖνος. Καὶ μάλιστα, ἔφην ἐγώ, καὶ μόνη. Τί γάρ ἐστι φιλοσοφία, φησί, καὶ τίς ἡ εὐδαιμονία αὐτῆς, εἰ μή τι κωλύει φράζειν, φράσον. Φιλοσοφία μέν, ἦν δ' ἐγώ, ἐπιστήμη ἐστὶ τοῦ ὄντος καὶ τοῦ ἀληθοῦς ἐπίγνωσις, εὐδαιμονία δὲ ταύτης τῆς ἐπιστήμης καὶ τῆς σοφίας γέρας. Θεὸν δὲ σὺ τί καλεῖς; ἔφη. Τὸ κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ καὶ ὡσαύτως ἀεὶ ἔχον καὶ τοῦ εἶναι πᾶσι τοῖς ἄλλοις αἴτιον, τοῦτο δή ἐστιν ὁ θεός. οὕτως ἐγὼ ἀπεκρινάμην αὐτῷ: καὶ ἐτέρπετο ἐκεῖνος ἀκούων μου, οὕτως τέ με ἤρετο πάλιν. Ἐπιστήμη οὐκ ἔστι κοινὸν ὄνομα διαφόρων πραγμάτων; ἔν τε γὰρ ταῖς τέχναις ἁπάσαις ὁ ἐπιστάμενος τούτων τινὰ ἐπιστήμων καλεῖται, ἔν τε στρατηγικῇ καὶ κυβερνητικῇ καὶ ἰατρικῇ ὁμοίως. ἔν τε τοῖς θείοις καὶ ἀνθρωπείοις οὐχ οὕτως ἔχει. ἐπιστήμη τίς ἐστιν ἡ παρέχουσα αὐτῶν τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων καὶ τῶν θείων γνῶσιν, ἔπειτα τῆς τούτων θειότητος καὶ δικαιοσύνης ἐπίγνωσιν; Καὶ μάλα, ἔφην. Τί οὖν; ὁμοίως ἐστὶν ἄνθρωπον εἰδέναι καὶ θεόν, ὡς μουσικὴν καὶ ἀριθμητικὴν καὶ ἀστρονομίαν ἤ τι τοιοῦτον; Οὐδαμῶς, ἔφην. Οὐκ ὀρθῶς ἄρα ἀπεκρίθης ἐμοί, ἔφη ἐκεῖνος: αἱ μὲν γὰρ ἐκ μαθήσεως προσγίνονται ἡμῖν ἢ διατριβῆς τινος, αἱ δὲ ἐκ τοῦ ἰδέσθαι παρέχουσι τὴν ἐπιστήμην. εἴ γέ σοι λέγοι τις ὅτι ἐστὶν ἐν Ἰνδίᾳ ζῶον φυὴν οὐχ ὅμοιον τοῖς ἄλλοις πᾶσιν, ἀλλὰ τοῖον ἢ τοῖον, πολυειδὲς καὶ ποικίλον, οὐκ ἂν πρότερον εἰδείης ἢ ἴδοις αὐτό, ἀλλ' οὐδὲ λόγον ἂν ἔχοις εἰπεῖν αὐτοῦ τινα εἰ μὴ ἀκούσαις τοῦ ἑωρακότος. Οὐ γάρ, φημί. Πῶς οὖν ἄν, ἔφη, περὶ θεοῦ ὀρθῶς φρονοῖεν οἱ φιλόσοφοι ἢ λέγοιέν τι ἀληθές, ἐπιστήμην αὐτοῦ μὴ ἔχοντες, μηδὲ ἰδόντες ποτὲ ἢ ἀκούσαντες; Ἀλλ' οὐκ ἔστιν ὀφθαλμοῖς, ἦν δ' ἐγώ, αὐτοῖς, πάτερ, ὁρατὸν τὸ θεῖον ὡς τὰ ἄλλα ζῶα, ἀλλὰ μόνῳ νῷ καταληπτόν, ὥς φησι Πλάτων, καὶ ἐγὼ πείθομαι αὐτῷ.