The First Apology of Justin

 Chapter I.—Address.

 Chapter II.—Justice demanded.

 Chapter III.—Claim of judicial investigation.

 Chapter IV.—Christians unjustly condemned for their mere name.

 Chapter V.—Christians charged with atheism.

 Chapter VI.—Charge of atheism refuted.

 Chapter VII.—Each Christian must be tried by his own life.

 Chapter VIII.—Christians confess their faith in God.

 Chapter IX.—Folly of idol worship.

 Chapter X.—How God is to be served.

 Chapter XI.—What kingdom Christians look for.

 Chapter XII.—Christians live as under God’s eye.

 Chapter XIII.—Christians serve God rationally.

 Chapter XIV.—The demons misrepresent Christian doctrine.

 Chapter XV.—What Christ himself taught.

 Chapter XVI.—Concerning patience and swearing.

 Chapter XVII.—Christ taught civil obedience.

 Chapter XVIII.—Proof of immortality and the resurrection.

 Chapter XIX.—The resurrection possible.

 Chapter XX.—Heathen analogies to Christian doctrine.

 Chapter XXI.—Analogies to the history of Christ.

 Chapter XXII.—Analogies to the sonship of Christ.

 Chapter XXIII.—The argument.

 Chapter XXIV.—Varieties of heathen worship.

 Chapter XXV.—False Gods abandoned by Christians.

 Chapter XXVI.—Magicians not trusted by Christians.

 Chapter XXVII.—Guilt of exposing children.

 Chapter XXVIII.—God’s care for men.

 Chapter XXIX.—Continence of Christians.

 Chapter XXX.—Was Christ not a magician?

 Chapter XXXI.—Of the Hebrew prophets.

 Chapter XXXII.—Christ predicted by Moses.

 Chapter XXXIII.—Manner of Christ’s birth predicted.

 Chapter XXXIV.—Place of Christ’s birth foretold.

 Chapter XXXV.—Other fulfilled prophecies.

 Chapter XXXVI.—Different modes of prophecy.

 Chapter XXXVII.—Utterances of the Father.

 Chapter XXXVIII.—Utterances of the Son.

 Chapter XXXIX.—Direct predictions by the Spirit.

 Chapter XL.—Christ’s advent foretold.

 Chapter XLI.—The crucifixion predicted.

 Chapter XLII.—Prophecy using the past tense.

 Chapter XLIII.—Responsibility asserted.

 Chapter XLIV.—Not nullified by prophecy.

 Chapter XLV.—Christ’s session in heaven foretold.

 Chapter XLVI.—The Word in the world before Christ.

 Chapter XLVII.—Desolation of Judæa foretold.

 Chapter XLVIII.—Christ’s work and death foretold.

 Chapter XLIX.—His rejection by the Jews foretold.

 Chapter L.—His humiliation predicted.

 Chapter LI.—The majesty of Christ.

 Chapter LII.—Certain fulfilment of prophecy.

 Chapter LIII.—Summary of the prophecies.

 Chapter LIV.—Origin of heathen mythology.

 Chapter LV.—Symbols of the cross.

 Chapter LVI.—The demons still mislead men.

 Chapter LVII.—And cause persecution.

 Chapter LVIII.—And raise up heretics.

 Chapter LIX.—Plato’s obligation to Moses.

 Chapter LX.—Plato’s doctrine of the cross.

 Chapter LXI.—Christian baptism.

 Chapter LXII.—Its imitation by demons.

 Chapter LXIII.—How God appeared to Moses.

 Chapter LXIV.—Further misrepresentations of the truth.

 Chapter LXV.—Administration of the sacraments.

 Chapter LXVI.—Of the Eucharist.

 Chapter LXVII.—Weekly worship of the Christians.

 Chapter LXVIII.—Conclusion.

 Epistle of Adrian in behalf of the Christians.

 Epistle of Antoninus to the common assembly of Asia.

 Epistle of Marcus Aurelius to the senate, in which he testifies that the Christians were the cause of his victory.

Chapter VI.—Charge of atheism refuted.

Hence are we called atheists. And we confess that we are atheists, so far as gods of this sort are concerned, but not with respect to the most true God, the Father of righteousness and temperance and the other virtues, who is free from all impurity. But both Him, and the Son (who came forth from Him and taught us these things, and the host of the other good angels who follow and are made like to Him),9    This is the literal and obvious translation of Justin’s words. But from c. 13, 16, and 61, it is evident that he did not desire to inculcate the worship of angels. We are therefore driven to adopt another translation of this passage, even though it be somewhat harsh. Two such translations have been proposed: the first connecting “us” and “the host of the other good angels” as the common object of the verb “taught;” the second connecting “these things” with “the host of,” etc., and making these two together the subject taught. In the first case the translation would stand, “taught these things to us and to the host,” etc.; in the second case the translation would be, “taught us about these things, and about the host of the others who follow Him, viz. the good angels.” [I have ventured to insert parenthetic marks in the text, an obvious and simple resource to suggest the manifest intent of the author. Grabe’s note in loc. gives another and very ingenious exegesis, but the simplest is best.] and the prophetic Spirit, we worship and adore, knowing them in reason and truth, and declaring without grudging to every one who wishes to learn, as we have been taught.

[6] Ἔνθεν δὲ καὶ ἄθεοι κεκλήμεθα: καὶ ὁμολογοῦμεν τῶν τοιούτων νομιζομένων θεῶν ἄθεοι εἶναι, ἀλλ' οὐχὶ τοῦ ἀληθεστάτου καὶ πατρὸς δικαιοσύνης καὶ σωφροσύνης καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἀρετῶν ἀνεπιμίκτου τε κακίας θεοῦ: ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνόν τε καὶ τὸν παρ' αὐτοῦ υἱὸν ἐλθόντα καὶ διδάξαντα ἡμᾶς ταῦτα, καὶ τὸν τῶν ἄλλων ἑπομένων καὶ ἐξομοιουμένων ἀγαθῶν ἀγγέλων στρατόν, πνεῦμά τε τὸ προφητικὸν σεβόμεθα καὶ προσκυνοῦμεν, λόγῳ καὶ ἀληθείᾳ τιμῶντες, καὶ παντὶ βουλομένῳ μαθεῖν, ὡς ἐδιδάχθημεν, ἀφθόνως παραδιδόντες.