The First Apology of Justin

 Chapter I.—Address.

 Chapter II.—Justice demanded.

 Chapter III.—Claim of judicial investigation.

 Chapter IV.—Christians unjustly condemned for their mere name.

 Chapter V.—Christians charged with atheism.

 Chapter VI.—Charge of atheism refuted.

 Chapter VII.—Each Christian must be tried by his own life.

 Chapter VIII.—Christians confess their faith in God.

 Chapter IX.—Folly of idol worship.

 Chapter X.—How God is to be served.

 Chapter XI.—What kingdom Christians look for.

 Chapter XII.—Christians live as under God’s eye.

 Chapter XIII.—Christians serve God rationally.

 Chapter XIV.—The demons misrepresent Christian doctrine.

 Chapter XV.—What Christ himself taught.

 Chapter XVI.—Concerning patience and swearing.

 Chapter XVII.—Christ taught civil obedience.

 Chapter XVIII.—Proof of immortality and the resurrection.

 Chapter XIX.—The resurrection possible.

 Chapter XX.—Heathen analogies to Christian doctrine.

 Chapter XXI.—Analogies to the history of Christ.

 Chapter XXII.—Analogies to the sonship of Christ.

 Chapter XXIII.—The argument.

 Chapter XXIV.—Varieties of heathen worship.

 Chapter XXV.—False Gods abandoned by Christians.

 Chapter XXVI.—Magicians not trusted by Christians.

 Chapter XXVII.—Guilt of exposing children.

 Chapter XXVIII.—God’s care for men.

 Chapter XXIX.—Continence of Christians.

 Chapter XXX.—Was Christ not a magician?

 Chapter XXXI.—Of the Hebrew prophets.

 Chapter XXXII.—Christ predicted by Moses.

 Chapter XXXIII.—Manner of Christ’s birth predicted.

 Chapter XXXIV.—Place of Christ’s birth foretold.

 Chapter XXXV.—Other fulfilled prophecies.

 Chapter XXXVI.—Different modes of prophecy.

 Chapter XXXVII.—Utterances of the Father.

 Chapter XXXVIII.—Utterances of the Son.

 Chapter XXXIX.—Direct predictions by the Spirit.

 Chapter XL.—Christ’s advent foretold.

 Chapter XLI.—The crucifixion predicted.

 Chapter XLII.—Prophecy using the past tense.

 Chapter XLIII.—Responsibility asserted.

 Chapter XLIV.—Not nullified by prophecy.

 Chapter XLV.—Christ’s session in heaven foretold.

 Chapter XLVI.—The Word in the world before Christ.

 Chapter XLVII.—Desolation of Judæa foretold.

 Chapter XLVIII.—Christ’s work and death foretold.

 Chapter XLIX.—His rejection by the Jews foretold.

 Chapter L.—His humiliation predicted.

 Chapter LI.—The majesty of Christ.

 Chapter LII.—Certain fulfilment of prophecy.

 Chapter LIII.—Summary of the prophecies.

 Chapter LIV.—Origin of heathen mythology.

 Chapter LV.—Symbols of the cross.

 Chapter LVI.—The demons still mislead men.

 Chapter LVII.—And cause persecution.

 Chapter LVIII.—And raise up heretics.

 Chapter LIX.—Plato’s obligation to Moses.

 Chapter LX.—Plato’s doctrine of the cross.

 Chapter LXI.—Christian baptism.

 Chapter LXII.—Its imitation by demons.

 Chapter LXIII.—How God appeared to Moses.

 Chapter LXIV.—Further misrepresentations of the truth.

 Chapter LXV.—Administration of the sacraments.

 Chapter LXVI.—Of the Eucharist.

 Chapter LXVII.—Weekly worship of the Christians.

 Chapter LXVIII.—Conclusion.

 Epistle of Adrian in behalf of the Christians.

 Epistle of Antoninus to the common assembly of Asia.

 Epistle of Marcus Aurelius to the senate, in which he testifies that the Christians were the cause of his victory.

Chapter LXVI.—Of the Eucharist.

And this food is called among us Εὐχαριστία143    Literally, thanksgiving. See Matt. xxvi. 27. [the Eucharist], of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh.144    This passage is claimed alike by Calvinists, Lutherans, and Romanists; and, indeed, the language is so inexact, that each party may plausibly maintain that their own opinion is advocated by it. [But the same might be said of the words of our Lord himself; and, if such widely separated Christians can all adopt this passage, who can be sorry?] The expression, “the prayer of His word,” or of the word we have from Him, seems to signify the prayer pronounced over the elements, in imitation of our Lord’s thanksgiving before breaking the bread. [I must dissent from the opinion that the language is “inexact:” he expresses himself naturally as one who believes it is bread, but yet not “common bread.” So Gelasius, Bishop of Rome (a.d. 490), “By the sacraments we are made partakers of the divine nature, and yet the substance and nature of bread and wine do not cease to be in them,” etc. (See original in Bingham’s Antiquities, book xv. cap. 5. See Chryost., Epist. ad. Cæsarium, tom. iii. p. 753. Ed. Migne.) Those desirous to pursue this inquiry will find the Patristic authorities in Historia Transubstantionis Papalis, etc., Edidit F. Meyrick, Oxford, 1858. The famous tractate of Ratranin (a.d. 840) was published at Oxford, 1838, with the homily of Ælfric (a.d. 960) in a cheap edition.] For the apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them; that Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, said, “This do ye in remembrance of Me,145    Luke xxii. 19. this is My body;” and that, after the same manner, having taken the cup and given thanks, He said, “This is My blood;” and gave it to them alone. Which the wicked devils have imitated in the mysteries of Mithras, commanding the same thing to be done. For, that bread and a cup of water are placed with certain incantations in the mystic rites of one who is being initiated, you either know or can learn.

[66] Καὶ ἡ τροφὴ αὕτη καλεῖται παρ' ἡμῖν εὐχαριστία, ἧς οὐδενὶ ἄλλῳ μετασχεῖν ἐξόν ἐστιν ἢ τῷ πιστεύοντι ἀληθῆ εἶναι τὰ δεδιδαγμένα ὑφ' ἡμῶν, καὶ λουσαμένῳ τὸ ὑπὲρ ἀφέσεως ἁμαρτιῶν καὶ εἰς ἀναγέννησιν λουτρόν, καὶ οὕτως βιοῦντι ὡς ὁ Χριστὸς παρέδωκεν. οὐ γὰρ ὡς κοινὸν ἄρτον οὐδὲ κοινὸν πόμα ταῦτα λαμβάνομεν: ἀλλ' ὃν τρόπον διὰ λόγου θεοῦ σαρκοποιηθεὶς Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ὁ σωτὴρ ἡμῶν καὶ σάρκα καὶ αἷμα ὑπὲρ σωτηρίας ἡμῶν ἔσχεν, οὕτως καὶ τὴν δι' εὐχῆς λόγου τοῦ παρ' αὐτοῦ εὐχαριστηθεῖσαν τροφήν, ἐξ ἧς αἷμα καὶ σάρκες κατὰ μεταβολὴν τρέφονται ἡμῶν, ἐκείνου τοῦ σαρκοποιηθέντος Ἰησοῦ καὶ σάρκα καὶ αἷμα ἐδιδάχθημεν εἶναι. οἱ γὰρ ἀπόστολοι ἐν τοῖς γενομένοις ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἀπομνημονεύμασιν, ἃ καλεῖται εὐαγγέλια, οὕτως παρέδωκαν ἐντετάλθαι αὐτοῖς: τὸν Ἰησοῦν λαβόντα ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσαντα εἰπεῖν: Τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἀνάμνησίν μου, τοῦτ' ἐστι τὸ σῶμά μου: καὶ τὸ ποτήριον ὁμοίως λαβόντα καὶ εὐχαριστήσαντα εἰπεῖν: Τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ αἷμά μου: καὶ μόνοις αὐτοῖς μεταδοῦναι. ὅπερ καὶ ἐν τοῖς τοῦ Μίθρα μυστηρίοις παρέδωκαν γίνεσθαι μιμησάμενοι οἱ πονηροὶ δαίμονες: ὅτι γὰρ ἄρτος καὶ ποτήριον ὕδατος τίθεται ἐν ταῖς τοῦ μυουμένου τελεταῖς μετ' ἐπιλόγων τινῶν, ἢ ἐπίστασθε ἢ μαθεῖν δύνασθε.